WIRELESS NETWORKS

WIRELESS NETWORKS (5G)
Technical Paper 2018/19
Ramnath
[email protected] Narayana
[email protected] Faraz
[email protected]: In the coming years beyond 4G, 1 some of the prime objectives or demands that need to be concentrated are bigger volume, improved data rate, decreased latency, and better quality of service. To meet these requirements, radical advances is required to be made in cellular architecture of network. The dream of next generation 5G wireless communications deceits in providing very high data rates (In Gbps order),2 enormously low latency, diverse increase in base station capacity, and significant enhancement in users’ professed quality of service (QoS), associated to present 4G LTE networks. Ever growing proliferation of smart devices, introduction of new emerging multimedia applications, together with an exponential rise in wireless information (multimedia) request and usage is already creating a significant burden on existing cellular networks. 5G wireless network, with improved data rates, bandwidth, capacity, latency, and QoS are expected to be the solution of most of the current cellular networks’ problems. The most important technologies 3 for 5G technologies are 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) and 802.16 Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMAN), Ad-hoc Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) and Wireless networks for digital communication along with this2,. For easing the increased network energy consumption and operating outflow, we make a detail review on energy awareness and cost efficiency. This paper shows the results of a detailed survey on the fifth generation (5G) cellular network architecture and some of the key emerging technologies that are helpful in refining the architecture and meeting the demands of users.

1. Introduction
It has been a more than a few decades since mobile wireless communications were initiated with the ?rst generation, voice-only systems. 2Over the last couple of decades the world has witnessed gradual, yet steady evolution of mobile wireless communications towards second, third and fourth generation wireless networks.1Our future imagination is a networked society, with unbounded access to data and sharing of data which is accessible everyone and everything at everywhere and anytime. To realize this thought, new technology components need to be studied for the evolution of existing wireless technologies. Present wireless technologies, like the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) LTE technology, HSPA and Wi-Fi, will be integrating new technology components that will be helping to meet the needs of the future. Nevertheless, there may be certain scenarios that cannot be adequately addressed along with the evolution of on-going existing technologies.

In last few years mobile and wireless networks have made remarkable development. At present many mobile phones have WLAN adapter also. We may expect that near soon many mobile phones will have Wax adapter too, besides their 3G, 2G, WLAN, Bluetooth adapters. We are using IP for generations, Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) on one end and WLAN on the other end, raised study on their integration. Concerning the 4G, its focus is towards perfect incorporation of cellular networks such as GSM and 3G. Multi-mode consumer terminals are seen as must have for 4G, but special security mechanisms and special operating system support in special wireless technologies remain a test.3The 5G terminals will have software defined radios and modulation scheme and error-control schemes which can be downloaded from the Internet. The improvement is seen towards the consumer terminals as a focus on the 5G mobile networks. The 5G mobile network will have access to different wireless networks at the same time. The 5G mobile terminal should be strong enough to combine special flows from different technologies. The network will be reliable for managing user-mobility.

Fig 1: Evolution of wireless Networks
The 5G terminal will make the good selection among different mobile network providers for a definite service. The evolution of these wireless technologies can be pasteurised as shown in above picture.

1.1 Challenges from 4G to 5G
A.3 Multi mode user terminals By means of 4G, there will be a need to design a single user terminal that can work in different wireless networks and conquer the design troubles such as limitations on the size of the device, its cost and power utilization. This trouble can be resolved by using software radio approach.
B. Choice among various wireless systems: Every wireless network has its own typical characteristics and roles. The choice of most appropriate technology for a specific facility at a specific place and at specific time. This will be implemented by making the best possible fit of consumer Quality of Service requirements.

C. Reconfigurable, adaptive and lightweight security protection mechanisms should be designed by which security in this technology will be high.
D. Network infrastructure and Quality of Service Support Integrating the current IP-based and non-IP based systems and providing QoS assurance for end-to-end services that involve different systems is a challenge.
E. Charging and Billing: It is hard to handle the Consumers account information from many service providers. similarly, Consumers billing is also a difficult task.
F. Attacks on Application Level Software which will offer a new feature to the consumer but will inaugurate new bugs.
G. Jamming and spoofing is fake GPS signals being sent out, in which case the GPS receiver considers that the signals arrives from a satellite and computes the wrong coordinates. Criminals can make use of such techniques. Jamming occurs when a transmitter sends signals at the same frequency shifts a GPS signal.
H. Data Encryption: If a GPS receiver will communicate with the main transmitter then the communication link between these two is not hard to break and consumer must use encrypted data.

1.2 Weakness in 5G Networks
It needs skilled engineers to connect and maintain 5G network. Moreover 5G apparatus are expensive. This increases price of 5G disposition and maintenance phases. 5G smartphones are overpriced. Hence it will take some time for the common man to make use of 5G technology. The skill is still under expansion and will take time before it is fully operative without having any issues. Coverage aloofness of up to 2 meters (in indoor) and 300 meters (in outdoor) can be accomplished due to higher fatalities at high rate of recurrence (such as millimetre waves). 5G mm wave agonizes from many such losses (penetration loss, attenuation due to rain, foliage loss etcIt will take time for security and privacy issues to be resolved fully in 5G network.

1.2.1 Key points and features on 5G communications
1. 3 5G is a accomplished wireless communication with practically no limitation; in some way people termed it REAL wireless world
2. Further features such as Multimedia Newspapers, also to watch T.V programs having the same clarity like an HD T.V does.

3. Data can be sent much more faster when compared to previous generation of networks.

4. 5G will bring nearly what is called a flawless real world wireless or called “WWWW: World Wide Wireless Web.

5. Tangible wireless world doesn’t have any more limitation to access and zone issues.

6. Wearable equipments with AI abilities.

7. Internet protocol version 6 (IPv6), where a staying care-of mobile IP address is allocated based on the location and connection of the network.

8. 5G technology provides high resolution for dedicated cell phone operators and bi- directional huge bandwidth influencing.

9. The progressive billing boundaries of 5G technology make it more striking and effective.
10. 5G technology will also supply supervison tools for the subscriber to get faster action.

11. The first-class services of 5G technology according to policy to prevent error.
12. 5G technology is enabling large broadcasting of information in Gigabit which supports almost 65,000 connections all over.

2. State of Art and Technology
2.1. Device-to-device (D2D)5 communication is an vital part of the fifth generation
(5G) system that can be seen as a “network of networks,” containing of numerous seamlessly-unified radio access technologies (RATs). Public security communications, autonomous driving, socially-aware networking, and infotainment services are instance use cases of D2D technology High data rate transportations and use of numerous dynamic air interfaces in the defined network produce energy consumption encounters for the base stations as well as the the end user equipments. We analyse the status of 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardization, which is the most significant calibration body for 5G systems.

19207500Fig 2:D2D communications
BS-Base station
UE-User Equipment
3 Device centric specification of 5G wireless is anticipated to empower the devices in closeness to interconnect unswervingly by passing the cellular BS for sharing appropriate contents. We brie?y highlight the key research works applicable to the situation of evolving 5G wireless communications.
Main and current research happenings in D2D comprise game the oreticpricing structures , social networking models (e.g. Qualcomms FlashLinQ) , public security networks and max allowable distance approximation for marketable roll out . An adhoc D2D network of 5G wireless strategies, by means of group key contract and routing regulator process. Low-slung latency, energy ef?ciency and scalability are essential to 5G networks. Therefore, it is important to decrease the regulator signalling and end to end latency in network supported D2D communications.

2.2 3GPP Standardisation
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3GPP 6standardization work is contribution-driven. Corporations (“individual members”) partake through their membership to a 3GPP Organizational Partner. As of April 2011, 3GPP is consisting of more than 370 distinct members.
Requirement work is done at WG and at TSG level:
1. The 3GPP WGs hold numerous conferences a year. They formulate and converse change desires against 3GPP specifications. A change appeal recognized at WG level is called “agreed”.
2. The 3GPP TSGs hold unlimited meetings periodically. The TSGs can “approve” the modification needs that were agreed at WG level. Some specifications are under the direct accountability of TSGs and therefore, change requirements can also be handled at TSG level. The approved change requirements are afterward unified in 3GPP specifications.

3GPP follows a three-stage procedure as defined in ITU-T Recommendation I.130:
1. stage 1 specifications outline the facility requirements from the point of view of the user.

2. Stage 2 specifications outline architecture to provision the facility requirements.

3. Stage 3 specifications outline an implementation of the architecture by stipulating procedures in particulars.

3. Current and Future Trends
The 5G wireless standard will deliver a unifying connectivity fabric that will bring huge enhancements to today’s mobile broadband services, expand mobile networks to support a vast diversity of devices and services, and revolutionize the Internet of Things (IoT) making there a ton of 5G use cases.

Some popular 5G use cases are coming into focus as we approach 2020 (the year 5G networks are expected to be unleashed). The following are the most talked-about 5G use cases, focusing mainly on the broader categories of connected services
Fixed mobile convergence: Fixed-mobile convergence (FMC) is the trend towards seamless connectivity between fixed and wireless telecommunications networks, the ultimate of goal of the FMC to optimise the transmissions of all data, voice and video communications among the users irrespective of their locations.

URLLC: It is a new service category in 5G to accommodate emerging services and applications having stringent latency and reliability requirements. It can be used to provide Mission critical services like disaster alerts, critical communications.

Mobile broadband: If you want fibre-like speeds without the cost, or high-speed internet in an area that doesn’t currently provide it, then 5G Wi-Fi might be something to look into. 5G will be able to deliver internet to your home via a direct wireless connection. The way this works is through fixed wireless access (FWA), which is a base station that wirelessly connects directly to an end-user’s location, specifically to a fixed wireless terminal (FWT) on the premises, like your home or business. Verizon is currently the only carrier that offers 5G Wi-Fi, but it’s only available in a few cities
IOT Technology: 5G can act as boost up technology of IoT technology, IoT technology is depends on the connectivity of multiple devices on one platform, the 5G technology gives right choice for its success. Imagine getting notification from smart home cameras on your phone when a package is delivered to your doorstep. That’s precisely the kind of thing IoT and 5G technology together can do. 5G IoT devices will use narrow bandwidth to support thousands of things per cell or device, offer prolonged battery life, and provide deep coverage in challenging areas at a small cost.

VR/AR Technology: VR and AR technologies are poised to be the ideal application for 5G technology due to its increased throughput, data transfer speed, and efficiency. The increasing popularity of AR and VR technologies is due to its ability to augment the user experience in activities such as online gaming, PlayStation, autonomous driving, and AR experience with the real environment.

Cloud Computing: The 5G technology will largely benefit the cloud computing industry. The evolution of 5G technology is characterized by an exponential growth in traffic that can keep up with the demands of scaling possibilities in the mobile network. Extremely high transmission rates allow all infrastructure and storages to be shifted to the cloud. For instance, from a consumer point of view this could mean that you would be able to store all the high-quality content and 4K videos on the cloud and access it later without latency and performance issues.

The fifth-generation mobile communication network (5G) is planned to be ready for deployment in the year 2020. The interest around 5G is based on the promises it makes about its performance: high data rates (in the order of gigabits per second), low latency (milliseconds), high reliability, support for many devices in small areas, and low energy consumption. Each of these improvements for itself is a great improvement over current mobile networks. While it is nice to be able to watch a high-resolution video or play games with low latency over a mobile network, this is not the only advantage. 5G also has the ability to revolutionize other sectors such as production, automotive, health care, and energy. 5G will allow moving from wired to wireless connections in many industrial environments. This will reduce installation costs and increase flexibility of, for example, the production processes. The following examples will give more details on what the future of industrial communication with 5G might be.

Qualcomm’s simulated 5G tests We’ve spent the last couple months hearing a lot about the kinds of speeds that 5G will be able to offer at its peak theoretically, but what about how the next-generation networks will work in actual, less than ideal real world conditions? To look for the answers Qualcomm doing 5G simulation tests. Qualcomm’s tests modeled real-world conditions in Frankfurt and San Francisco, based on the location of existing cell sites and spectrum allocations in the two cities. The simulations factor in conditions like geography, different user demands on the network, a wide spectrum of devices with various levels of LTE and 5G connectivity for different speeds in order to accurately give an idea of what to expect when these networks launch. Additionally, the simulations are intended only to show the kind of 5G NR (New Radio) networks that could feasibly exist next year — the non-standalone networks built in tandem with existing 4G LTE technology, not the truly standalone 5G networks that will come later on.

The Frankfurt simulation is the more basic network, based on 100 MHz of 3.5GHz spectrum with a fundamental gigabit-LTE network on 5 LTE spectrum bands, but the results are still amazing. Browsing jumped from 56 Mbps for the average 4G user to more than 490 Mbps for the average 5G user, with approximately seven times faster response rates for browsing. Download speeds also improved dramatically, with over 90 percent of users seeing at least 100 Mbps download speeds on 5G, versus 8 Mbps on LTE.

The San Francisco simulation was even more impressive. There, Qualcomm modeled a network operating in 800 MHz of 28 GHz mmWave spectrum, built on top of a gigabit-LTE network on four licensed LTE bands in addition to License Assisted Access (LAA) bands. Browsing speeds jumped from 71 Mbps for the average 4G user to 1.4 Gbps for the average 5G user (in mmWave coverage), with response times roughly 23 times faster. Download speeds for 90 percent of users went from at least 10 Mbps to 186 Mbps on 5G, with the average speed clocking in at 442 Mbps. Video quality also improved intensely in both tests, with average 5G users seeing 8K, 120 FPS, 10-bit colour video streaming.Obviously, we still have a ways to go before these kinds of speeds become reality. As much effort as Qualcomm has put into its simulations, they’re still only tests.

4. Conclusion
In this paper we have discussed about the evolution, Architecture advantages of the 5g. Instead of all generation 5g will make great impact in modern society means the development will go to the peak. Hence there is more development is ahead. The feature IOT mainly depends upon 5g. There were many advantages though there were few demerits which must be sorted to attain more use by 5g.
5.References
1)https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7169508
2)https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7414384
3)https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6526920
4)http://www.rfwireless-world.com/Terminology/Advantages-and-Disadvantages-of-5G.html
5)http://nu.edu.eg/recent-advances-in-5g-wireless-networks-research/
6)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3GPP
7)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5G#First_5G_network_deployments8)http://www.charisma5g.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Fixed-Mobile-Convergence-in-5G-networking.pdf9)https://www.lifewire.com/5g-internet-wifi-4156280