Name: Kamau David Kariuki
Student Id: 656629
Unit: Overview of Management Practices
Unit Code: MGT 3010C
Lecturer: Prof.Veronicah Kaluyu
Submission Date: 15th November 2018
You have been identified as a consultant to train new managers about principles and practices of management; prepare a training syllabi including the content you would deliver and case scenarios you would use as illustrations.
This training syllabi intends to have the following programme outcomes:
Provide the new managers an understanding of what management entails
Enable the managers gain sufficient working knowledge of what is expected of them in today’s world.
Develop the managers’ capacity to appreciate the Fayol’s 14 Universal Principles of Management and how to effectively implement them in their day to day activities as managers.
Enable the new managers appreciate and understand the top management practises of effective leaders.
Management can simply be defined as the process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in a changing environment. Central to this process is the effective and efficient use of limited resources. There are five components of this definition:
Working with and through others
Achieving organizational objectives
Balancing effectiveness and efficiency
Making the most of limited resources
Coping with a changing environment
Management is, above all else, a social process. Managers are responsible for getting things done by working with and through others. Aspiring managers who don’t interact well with others hamper their careers. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being swept along or caught unprepared. “The next generation of corporate leaders will need the charm of a debutante, the flexibility of a gymnast, and the quickness of panther. A few foreign languages and a keen understanding of technology won’t hurt either. Also in the mix are a sense of humour, passion, and the ability to make decisions rapidly” (Kreitner & Cassidy,2011, p.8).
Key Aspects of the Management Process
Henri Fayol’s Universal Management Process
Fayol was first an engineer and later a successful administrator in a large French mining and metallurgical concern. Fayol was a manager who attempted to translate his broad administrative experience into practical guidelines for the successful management of all types of organisations
Fayol believed that the manager’s job could be divided into five functions, or areas, of managerial responsibility-planning, organizing, command, coordination, and control-that are essential to managerial process.
His 14 universal principles of management were intended to show managers how to carry out their functional duties. Fayol’s functions and principles have withstood the test of time because of their widespread applicability.
Fayol’s 14 Universal Principles of Management
Division of work. Specialization of labour is necessary for organizational success.
Authority. The right to give orders must accompany responsibility.
Discipline. Obedience and respect help an organization run smoothly
Unity of Command. Each employee should receive orders from only one employee
Unity of Direction. The efforts of everyone in the organization should be coordinated and focused in the same direction.
Subordination of individual interests to the general interest. Resolving the tug of war between personal and organizational interests in favor of the organization is one of management’s greatest difficulties.
Remuneration. Employees should be paid fairly in accordance with their contribution
Centralization. The relationship between centralization and decentralization is a matter of proportion; the optimum balance must be found for each organization.
Scalar chain. Subordinates should observe the formal chain of command unless expressly authorized by their respective superiors to communicate with each other.
Order. Both material things and people should be in their proper places.
Equity. Fairness that results from a combination of kindliness and justice will lead to devoted and loyal service.
Stability and tenure of personnel. People need time to learn their new jobs.
Initiative. One of the greatest satisfactions is formulating and carrying out a plan.
Esprit de corps. Harmonious effort among individuals is the key to organizational success.
Fayol’s main contribution to management was to show how the complex management process can be separated into interdependent areas of responsibility or functions. Fayol’s contention that management is a continuous process beginning with planning and ending with controlling also remains popular to date.
How to Become a Better Manager?: Top Management Practices of Effective Leaders
Different management styles will suit different contexts depending on the company culture, the size of the team or organisation, the nature of the work or industry and the particular personalities involved. There are some universals, however.
Effective management is an art – but luckily, it is one that can be learned if you follow some basic principles. Here are some tips on becoming a better manager, starting right now:
Select the right people
It all starts with getting the best possible team in place – together, the whole can become greater than the sum of its parts. You need to select the right people for the right jobs, build a complementary team, and align your people with your organisational goals and culture.Recruit right. Make sure that each person not only has the right skills but, more importantly, fits the culture. Knowing how various roles will help to achieve your organisation’s goals can help define the requirements against which you will interview and assess candidates.The development of key people may be the single greatest determinant of an organisation’s ability to deal with uncertainty and succeed. Central to its development is a leader’s ability to engage people and align the needs of individuals with those of the organisation to deliver a united and cohesive front.
Empathy is the ability to listen to people, relate to their emotional experience and let them know that you are doing so. Managers with high emotional intelligence can build rapport with and between people, leading to greater trust and transparency in the team.
As a manager, openness and empathy should be a key part of your brand. Developing the ability to understand people and connect with them in a genuine, meaningful way is a key determining factor in how effective you can be at influencing them, setting them objectives that motivate them, and rewarding them in a way they each actually find motivating. In fact, multiple studies have shown that high performing managers have higher ’emotional competence.
Communication is the key to fostering transparency and building relationships built on openness, trust and honesty with your team. The first step in effective communication is to create the time and space for people to talk and to ask questions.
After all, you can’t motivate people if they don’t know what you want. Managers ought to set clear objectives for both the organisation and its people to discuss and negotiate, let people know what support and resources they have access to, and to clearly link rewards to objectives. Non-verbal behaviour is just as important as what people say, so effective managers need to be keen observers to gauge how people are responding to a work situation at an emotional level. Managers need to be intuitive, since staff members may not always tell you when they’re struggling. Communication needs to flow in all directions, from managers to their staff, from staff to managers, and between team members. An effective leader is a good listener and fosters an environment where people can get to know each other and understand each others’ strengths, weaknesses and communication styles. Good managers are open to input from their staff, and learn from their feedback.
Lead by example
People will pick up on the verbal and non-verbal expressions of their boss’s state of mind, so leaders need to take responsibility for the atmosphere they create and shape it with their own behaviour. This can be as simple as your posture and demeanour when you arrive at the office in the morning, or more systemic like outlining values and protocols for working with each other.It’s also important to practise what you preach. You can’t expect your staff to work harder than you’re willing to. Once in a while, roll up your sleeves and get your hands dirty.
As a manager, it’s important that you recognise that there are only so many hours in the day, and only so much that you can do by yourself. While you may find that it’s faster to get things done on your own in the short term (particularly if you have a new or inexperienced team), in the long term you will save a lot of time by delegating meaningful projects to your team members. By doing this, you will also build their skills and help them reach their potential. However, delegation doesn’t mean micromanaging.
It’s important to let your staff take ownership of their work and find their own ways of doing things. Articulate the outcome you would like to see – and then leave them to their devices, checking in every once in a while to see if they need your support. Delegate responsibility rather than tasks for maximum impact.
6. Be positive and constructive
Providing timely and meaningful feedback to your staff is crucial, as is determining how best to give them this feedback. Tailor your approach to each individual, with some people requiring regular assurance and support, and others preferring more autonomy. It’s important to let your staff know what they’re doing right as well as what areas they need to work on.
It’s better to tell people what you want them to do rather than telling them what you don’t want them to do. If you have to comment on poor performance, use actual observations to demonstrate the issue and talk about behaviours (which people can change) rather than criticise personalities or make value judgments.
7. Thank and reward your people
This area is often neglected but can’t be overstated – it takes very little effort to thank someone, but it can make all the difference to how people feel on the job. After all, your team members are people, not robots!When it comes to rewards, it’s important to provide rewards that people will actually find gratifying. For example, some people love to be taken out for lunch, while others might prefer time in lieu or more autonomy and responsibility. Many managers reward people in the way they themselves like to be rewarded, which is not always effective.
8. Develop your people
A manager is only as good as their team. Help your employees to succeed – their success is your success. Be patient. Coach them and coach them and coach them … they’ll remember one day.The best way to coach your people is to help them focus on process rather than content. As a manager you will have people coming to you with issues and problems, but instead of getting bogged down in the detail, coach people. If you don’t know where to start, here’s a framework.
Ask the person to:
Outline the problem;
Describe the impact the problem is having;
Explain what they’ve tried already;
Define what an ideal outcome looks like;
Explore the resources they might use to get there;
Consider possible next steps;
Have them try it; and
Come back to you with the results.
This turns the problem orientation into a solution orientation, as well as being a great learning opportunity and empowering the person to solve the problem themselves.
9. Encourage innovation
It’s important for leaders to think outside the square and know when to take risks. Take risks with your employees – often they bring pleasant surprises.By giving people the freedom to work through problems and solutions themselves, you will encourage innovation, creativity and resourcefulness. Let your team think for themselves; don’t strangle their creativity. Encourage innovation – for instance, Google allows one day a week for every employee to innovate.'(Google does indeed allow its employees to use up to 20 per cent of their time to pursue their own independent projects. Apparently this independent work time leads to 2.5 times greater productivity and generates the ideas for 50 per cent of all new product releases!)
10. Be flexible
Good managers have a flexible approach and are able to adapt to individual employees, allowing them to work according to their own individual style. In addition, flexible workplace practices have emerged as an increasingly important priority for employees. Great leaders know how to lead from the front and motivate their teams to perform to the best of their ability.
So, a question to you as a new manager.
What are your top management tips that you would offer to the organization?
There is definitely no fixed manual for managers to follow to become successful ones but with the Fayol’s universal principles of management and also the few stated practises of management one can definitely be on the right path to becoming a successful and effective manager of an organization. All managers should strive to work through others, in this case their employees to achieve the set out organizational objectives and this can only be achieved by a manager who decided to go beyond the norm and been an exceptional manager who is open to change.
Cassidy, C & Kreitner, R. (2012). Management. South-Western, USA: Cengage Learning.
Chun & Avenell: How to Become a Better Manager: Management Practices of Effective Leaders. Retrieved from https://www.careerfaqs.com.au/news/news-and-views/top-10-management-practices-of-effective-leaders