Muhammad Junaid Afzal 2016-ag-6454 Semester 5th Topic

Muhammad Junaid Afzal
2016-ag-6454
Semester 5th
Topic:
Land use and key commodities in organic agriculture – permanent crops and beekeeping
According to IFOAM – Organics International:
“Organic Agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic Agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved.”
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which develop early in the 20th century in response to rapidly unstable agricultural trials. Organic farming persist to be adopted by various organic agriculture organizations today. It depends on fertilizers of organic source such as compost manure, green manure, and bone meal and stresses on techniques such as crop rotation and associate planting. Biological pest control, mixed cropping and the encouragement of insect predators are inspired. In general, organic measures are programmed to allow the use of naturally occurring things while discouraging or strictly bounding synthetic matters. For example, naturally present chemicals e.g. pyrethrin and rotenone are allowed, while artificial fertilizers and chemicals are generally forbidden. Synthetic chemicals that are allowed include, for instance, copper sulfate, elemental sulfur and Ivermectin. Genetically modified organisms, nanomaterials, human sewage sludge, plant growth regulators, hormones, and antibiotic use in livestock husbandry are forbidden. explanations for promotion of organic agriculture include benefits in sustainability, cleanness, self-adequacy, self-dependence, health, food security, and food protection.
Organic farming practices are worldwide regulated and fairly adopted by many nations, based in large part on the laws prepared by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), an international base institution for organic agriculture organizations
starts in 1972.
Land use:
Land use consists the handling and dynamic of natural environs or geographic area into changed environs for instance settlements and semi-natural habitats like productive lands, grazing areas, and managed woods. it’s conjointly outlined as “the add of arrangements, practices, and intakes that individuals undertake in an exceedingly sure land cowl sort.
Land use in organic agriculture:
The Oxford meta-analysis of 71 studies found that organic agriculture needs 84% more land for identical quantity of harvest, in the main thanks to lack of nutrients however generally thanks to weeds, diseases or pests, lower yielding animals and land needed for fertility building crops. whereas organic farming doesn’t essentially save land for life habitats and biological science all told cases, the foremost fashionable breakthroughs in organic area unit addressing these problems successfully.
After knowing that organic agriculture would like a lot of land than inorganic agriculture, world is promoting organic agriculture. This may be shown below by the statistics of the year 2015.
› 179 countries have data on organic agriculture.
› 50.9 million hectares of agricultural land are organic (including conversion areas).
› 6.5 million hectares more than in 2014
› 1.1 percent of the agricultural land is organic
› In 11 countries 10 percent or more of the farmland is organic
› 2.4 million producers were reported, more than three quarters are in developing countries.

Organic producers 2015:
› For the present survey, a complete of just about 2.4 million organic producers were rumored.
› Per the information obtained, quite 3 quarters of the producers area unit situated in developing and transition countries.
› The country with the foremost producers is Asian nation (585’200), followed by Ethiopia (203’302) and Mexico (200’039).
› It ought to be noted that not all certifiers rumored range the quantity of producers; their number is maybe beyond 2.4 million
Organic Agriculture by continent:
› Asia may be a major bourgeois of organic product, however the domestic market is growing powerfully
› China is that the largest market within the region
› Terribly dynamic development in several countries
› Government support (including for PGS) in several countries
› Sikkim is that the 1st organic state
The trend of organic agriculture is increasing within the world particularly in developing countries. In Asia the land beneath organic agriculture in 2000 was solely 0.06 million hectares. The land beneath organic agriculture was enhanced to 3.78 million hectares in 2004 and 3.97 million hectares in 2014.
Organic Farmland:
• World have 50.9 million ha land beneath organic agriculture.
• In Oceania there have been 22.8 Million ha
• In Europe 12.7 Million ha
• In Latin America 6.7 Million ha
• Australia with 22.6 million ha
• 1.1% of the world’s farmland is organic
• 11 countries have 100 percent or additional of their agricultural land beneath organic agriculture
• In 2015, almost 6.5 million hectares additional were according compared with 2014.
Organic Producers:
• World have 2.4 million organic producers.
• The country with the foremost organic producers is Asian country followed by Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and United Mexican States.
• 35% producers are from Asia.
• More than 84% of producers are in Asia, and Latin America.
• There has been a rise within the range of producers by quite a 160,000 or over 21% since 2014
Organic Land Use:
• Arable land represents 0.7% of the world’s cultivable crop land, 10 Million ha, and 19.6% of the world’s organic agricultural land. It raised by 12.9% over 2014.
• Organic permanent crops represent 2.5% of the world’s permanent cropland, 4 Million ha, and a 8% of the organic agricultural land. They raised by 19% over 2014.
• Permanent piece of land represents 1.0% of the world’s permanent piece of land, 33.1 Million ha, and a 65% of the organic agricultural land. It raised by 17% over 2014.
• The organic wild assortment areas are targeted in Europe, Africa, Asia, and geographic area
Land use:
Almost simple fraction of the 50.9 million hectares of organic agricultural land in 2015 were grassland/grazing areas (33.1 million hectares). The cropland space (arable land with virtually ten million hectares and permanent crops with four million hectares) implanted fourteen million hectares, and virtually one third of the organic agricultural land. The cropland space is maybe abundant higher as a result of details ashore use don’t seem to be out there for a few countries with giant organic agricultural areas like Brazil and Asian nation. General land use info was out there for 93% of the organic agricultural land; but, this doesn’t mean that elaborate crop info is accessible for all areas as not all countries provided elaborate crop information. The UN agency classification of land use was utilized for this survey with slight modifications. A system just like that of Eurostat was used for the classification of crops. The subsequent main levels were accustomed classify the land use data: arable land, permanent crops, cropland that no any details were out there (cropland =arable land + permanent cropland), permanent grassland/grazing areas, different agricultural areas (such as an example hedges), and agricultural land that no details were out there in the least. Cultivation, forest, and touched non-agricultural land were distinguished from “agricultural land” with a separate class, as were organic wild assortment areas and apiculture areas. The land use info is summarized, as follows:
Africa:
Land use info was offered for concerning 80% of the organic agricultural land in Africa. Over half the agricultural land is employed for permanent crops. The most permanent crops square measure money crops, like coffee and olives.
Asia:
Land use details square measure identified for pretty much three-quarters of the organic agricultural land in Asia. Arable land is principally used for cereals, as well as rice. moreover, oilseeds square measure vital.
Europe:
In Europe, the agricultural land use is accepted, and therefore the main crop classes square measure well documented. Permanent pastures and cultivable land have close to equal shares of the organic agricultural space. Cultivable land is principally used for the cultivation of cereals (2.2 million hectares) followed by green fodder (almost a pair of.1 million hectares). Permanent crops account for 11 % of the organic agricultural land. Quite common fraction of this land was used for olives, followed by grapes, nuts, and fruits.
Latin America and the Caribbean:
Nearly 8% of the organic agricultural land in Latin America that info was obtainable is permanent pasture. Permanent crops account for 12% of the overall organic agricultural space. Quite 1/2 the permanent cropland is employed for occasional, followed by cocoa and tropical fruits.
North America:
As in Europe, arable land and permanent grassland/grazing areas have virtually equal shares. a significant proportion of the arable land is employed for cereal production and cultivation of green fodder.
Oceania:
Most of the land in Australia is employed for intensive grassland/grazing, and a bottom quantity of data is on the market on the remaining land. a good vary of crops area unit fully grown within the Pacific region.
Table: Land use in organic agriculture by region (including in-conversion areas) 2015
Land use Africa (ha) Asia (ha) Europe (ha) Latin America (ha) North America (ha) Oceania (ha) Total (ha)
Arable land 413604 2232176 5661759 314609 1360567 594 9983309
Permanent crop 937583 748164 1397140 827550 62614 69188 4042239
Permanent grassland 30276 28059 5344614 4325855 1350294 22056465 33135564
Total 1683482 3965289 12716969 6744723 2973886 22838513 50919006

Source: FiBL survey 2017, based on information from the private sector, certifiers, and governments.
*Totals include other agricultural areas, land for which no details were available, and correction values for some countries for land with double cropping during one year.
Permanent crops:
A permanent crop is one created from plants that last for several seasons, instead of being replanted once every harvest.
Permanent crops account for over 4 million hectares, which is 2.5 % of the world’s permanent cropland. Compared with the previous survey, a rise of over 640’000 hectares, or 18.9%, was rumored. 8% of the organic agricultural land is permanent cropland. Thus, permanent cropland includes a higher share in organic agriculture than in total agriculture, wherever permanent crops account for roughly 3% of the overall. Most of the permanent cropland is in Europe (1.4 million hectares), followed by continent (0.9 million hectares), and African area (0.8 million hectares). the foremost vital crop is low, with over 0.9 million hectares constituting nearly one-quarter of the organic permanent cropland, followed by olives (almost 0.7 million hectares), nuts (0.4 million hectares), tropical and semitropical fruits (almost 0.4 million hectares), and grapes (0.3 million hectares).
Table: Use of organic permanent cropland (including in-conversion areas), 2014 and 2015 compared
Crop group 2014 (ha) 2015 (ha) Change (ha) Organic share (%)
Berries 52716 49883 -2833 10.1%
Citrus fruit 71617 70798 -816 0.6%
Cocoa 249194 302406 53212 3%
Coconut 156412 290786 134374 2.4%
Coffee 761178 903878 142700 8.9%
Flowers and ornamental plants 24 191 267 –
Fruit, no detail 25217 2793 -22424 –
Fruits temperate 186486 288502 102016 2.3%
Fruits, tropical and subtropical 226283 374769 148486 1.5%
Grapes 311866 332905 22039 4.7%
Medicinal plants 28804 72385 43581 2.8%
Nurseries 2704 2659 -45 –
Nuts 276138 414558 138420 3.3%
Olives 627008 672033 45024 6.5%
Permanent crops, other 355988 160788 195200 –
Tea mate etc. 69025 102804 33779 2.6%
total 3400661 4042239 641578 2.5%

Source: FiBL survey 2017, based on data from governments, the private sector, and certifiers.
*The organic crop group share is calculated with 2013 FAO data, while the organic share of total permanent crops is calculated with 2014 FAO data.
*Total includes permanent crop groups, for which no further details were available.
There were 164’650’440 hectares of permanent cropland in 2014 according to FAOSTAT, FAO, Rome.
Beekeeping:
Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans. Most such bees are honey bees in the genus Apis, but other honey-producing bees such as Melipona stingless bees are also kept. A beekeeper (or apiarist) keeps bees in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produces (including beeswax, propolis, flower pollen, bee pollen, and royal jelly), to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or “bee yard.”
Wild collection and beekeeping areas:
The collection of untamed harvested crops is outlined within the IFOAM Norms (IFOAM 2014), and wild assortment activities also are regulated by organic laws. a group space (including beekeeping) of 39.4 million hectares was according in 2015. The organic wild assortment area are targeted in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America; the distribution is therefore quite totally different from that of the organic agricultural land. The countries with the most important area are Finland (mainly berries), followed by African country (beekeeping), and India. Wild berries, apiculture, and healthful and aromatic plants, likewise as shea round the bend in Africa and Brazil round the bend in Latin America, play the foremost vital roles.
Table: Wild collection and beekeeping areas by region 2014 and 2015 compared
Region 2014 (ha) 2015 (ha) Change (ha) Change (%)
Africa 11790601 11905017 114415 1.0%
Asia 6300019 5522891 -777128 -12.3%
Europe 16293965 17658757 1364792 8.4%
Latin America 3007369 4221072 1213702 40.4%
North America 63954 54551 -902 -14.7%
Oceania 765 765 – –
Total 37456673 39363053 1906380 5.1%
Source: FiBL survey 2017, based on data from governments, the private sector, and certifiers.
Beehives:
There were over two million organic beehives in 2015, representing nearly 2.5% of the world’s beehives, consistent with UN agency knowledge from 2014. Organic beehives area unit targeted in Latin America (45 percent) and Europe (40 percent). The country with the biggest variety of organic beehives is Brazil (734’306), followed by Italia (195’341), and Balkan country (178’331). Their numbers have enlarged four-fold since 2007, once over 535’000 beehives were according. However, it’s vital to notice that the increase in number will be attributed to the frequently up knowledge convenience. the rise from 2014 to 2015 is thanks to the very fact that knowledge for a few countries like Brazil was out there for the primary time. It’s expected that organic cultivation can still grow worldwide due to the increasing demand for organic honey and bee product. One among the most challenges for brand spanking new organic beekeepers is that the conversion method thanks to the dearth of access to information on organic cultivation practices and on the organic certification method. moreover, the assembly of excellent quality organic honey and also the management of the Varroa parasite with organic ways area unit major obstacles for organic beekeepers. In 2015, IFOAM – Organics International created a brand new cultivation platform, the IFOAM cultivation Forum (IAF). The most aims of the IAF area unit to advance the event of organic cultivation and to encourage the standard practices used by beekeepers.