MODULE NAME

MODULE NAME : SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

ASSIGNMENT BY: MRS BISSESSUR Gaishree

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STUDENT ID: 201602352
LECTURER’S NAME: Mrs OMBIKA Rishtika
Diploma in social work

Year 1/semester 2/ cohort 2

Date of submission : 31/03/2018

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Table of Content

Assignment Question…………………………………………………………………………..…….page 2
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………..………..page 3
Definition of Attitude…………………………………………………………………………………page 3
The components of attitudes …………………………………………………………………….page 3
How Do Attitudes Influence Behavior……………………………………………….………..page 4
Factors That Influence Attitude Strength……………………………………………….…..page 5
Attitude Change………………………………………………………………………………….……..page 6
Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)……………………………………………………………page 7
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………page 8
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………page 9

Assignment Question
What are the factors determine the success of attitude change programs? Describe theoretical bases and research evidence .Include examples from a current local social change program (e.g. safe driving campaign ‘Ensam pa less koltar touye nou fami ‘).

INTRODUCTION
In psychology, an attitude refers as set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors toward a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behavior. While attitudes are enduring, they can also change.
DEFINITION OF ATTITUDE
Attitudes is defined as a learned tendency to evaluate things in a certain way. This can include evaluations of people, issues, objects, or events. Such evaluations are often positive or negative, but they can also be uncertain at times. For example, you might have mixed feelings about a particular person or issue.
There are several different components that make up attitudes.
The components of attitudes are:
• Cognitive Component: your thoughts and beliefs about the subject.
• Affective Component: how the object, person, issue, or event makes you feel.
• Behavioral Component: how the attitude influences your behavior.
Attitudes can also be explicit and implicit.
Explicit attitudes are those that we are consciously aware of and that clearly influence our behaviors and beliefs.
Implicit attitudes are unconscious but still have an effect on our beliefs and behaviors.
There are a number of factors that influence attitudes:
Experience
Attitudes form directly as a result of experience. They may emerge due to direct personal experience, or they may result from observation.

Social Factors
Social roles and social norms can have a strong influence on attitudes. Social roles relate to how people are expected to behave in a particular role or context. Social norms involve society’s rules for what behaviors are considered appropriate.
Learning
Attitudes can be learned in different ways. Consider how advertisers use classical conditioning to influence your attitude toward a particular product. In a television commercial, you see young, beautiful people having fun in on a tropical beach while enjoying a sports drink. This attractive and appealing picture causes you to develop a positive association with this particular beverage.
Operant conditioning can also be used to influence how attitudes develop. Imagine a young man who has just started smoking. Whenever he lights up a cigarette, people complain, rebuke him, and ask him to leave their vicinity.
This negative feedback from those around him eventually causes him to develop an unfavorable opinion of smoking and he decides to give up the habit.
Finally, people also learn attitudes by observing the people around them. When someone you admire greatly espouses a particular attitude, you are more likely to develop the same beliefs. For example, children spend a great deal of time observing the attitudes of their parents and usually begin show similar outlooks.
How Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?
We tend to assume that people behave according to their attitudes. However, it has been proved that attitudes and actual behavior are not always perfectly aligned.

Factors That Influence Attitude Strength
It has been discovered that people are more likely to behave according to their attitudes under certain conditions:
• When your attitudes are the result of personal experience.
• When you are an expert in the subject.
• When you expect a favorable outcome.
• When the attitudes are repeatedly expressed.
• When you stand to win or lose something due to the issue.
Attitudes Can Change to Match Behavior
In some cases, people may actually alter their attitudes in order to better align them with their behavior. Cognitive dissonance, is a phenomenon in which a person experiences psychological distress due to conflicting thoughts or beliefs. In order to reduce this tension, people may change their attitudes to reflect their other beliefs or actual behaviors.
An Example of Changing an Attitude Due to Cognitive Dissonance
Imagine the following situation: You’ve always placed a high value on financial security, but you start dating someone who is very financially unstable. In order to reduce the tension caused by the conflicting beliefs and behavior, you have two options.
You can end the relationship and seek out a partner who is more financially secure, or you can de-emphasize fiscal stability importance. In order to minimize the dissonance between your conflicting attitude and behavior, you either have to change the attitude or change your actions.

Attitude Change
While attitudes can have a powerful effect on behavior, they are not set in stone. The same influences that lead to attitude formation can also create attitude change.
Learning Theory of Attitude Change:
Classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning can be used to bring about attitude change.
Classical conditioning
Classical conditioning can be used to create positive emotional reactions to an object, person, or event by associating positive feelings with the target object.
Operant conditioning
Operant conditioning can be used to strengthen desirable attitudes and weaken undesirable ones. People can also change their attitudes after observing the behavior of others.
Elaborate on the Theory of Attitude Change
This theory of persuasion suggests that people can alter their attitudes in two ways. First, they can be motivated to listen and think about the message, thus leading to an attitude shift. Or, they might be influenced by characteristics of the speaker, leading to a temporary or surface shift in attitude. Messages that are thought-provoking and that appeal to logic are more likely to lead to permanent changes in attitudes.
Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
The elaboration likelihood model is similar in concept to and shares many ideas with other dual processing models, such as the heuristic-systematic model of information processing .In the elaboration likelihood model, cognitive processing is the central route and affective/emotion processing is often associated with the peripheral route. The ELM suggests that true attitude change only happens through the central processing route that incorporates both cognitive and affective components as opposed to the more heuristics-based peripheral route. This suggests that motivation through emotion alone will not result in an attitude change.
Dissonance Theory of Attitude Change: As mentioned earlier, people can also change their attitudes when they have conflicting beliefs about a topic. In order to reduce the tension created by these incompatible beliefs, people often change their attitudes.
Cognitive dissonance
Cognitive dissonance, a theory originally developed by Festinger (1957), is the idea that people experience a sense of guilt or uneasiness when two linked cognitions are inconsistent, such as when there are two conflicting attitudes about a topic, or inconsistencies between one’s attitude and behavior on a certain topic. The basic idea of the Cognitive Dissonance Theory relating to attitude change, is that people are motivated to reduce dissonance which can be achieved through changing their attitudes and beliefs
Self-affirmation has been shown to reduce dissonance, however it is not always the mode of choice when trying to reduce dissonance. When multiple routes are available, it has been found that people prefer to reduce dissonance by directly altering their attitudes and behaviors rather than through self-affirmation. People who have high levels of self-esteem, who are postulated to possess abilities to reduce dissonance by focusing on positive aspects of the self, have also been found to prefer modifying cognitions, such as attitudes and beliefs, over self-affirmation.
Despite the sensitization campaigns and measures to reduce the number of accidents and deaths, the death toll has never been this high .There are some important measures that the Ministry of Infrastructures has taken in order to change the attitude of careless drivers and to make road safe for all people. . Following the high number of fatal road accidents, the Minister announced important measures regarding two-wheelers. The Minister announced the creation of Motorcycle Riding School (Moto-Ecole). Further regulations will be introduced in the near future for motorcyclists in order to reduce the number of accident .Pedestrians are being sensitized as they also have their part to play when they are on the road. “We must change their mentality. Pedestrians must know how to behave when they are on the road.” Two of the immediate solutions that the Government has chosen in order to curb road accidents is (1)Education ,It is a more convincing way to make people learn and change their attitude.(2)Law are being enforced for drivers who drink and drive ,that may lead to permanent suspended of the license and fines are high.
To my believed the discontinuation of the Penalty Points Management System (PPMS) by the present government is not a good measure. “People adapted to the system and adopted new habits on the road. I trust that when the system has been discontinued people have gone back to their old bad habits. It certainly needed to be reviewed but it should not have been discontinued. It allowed people to change their attitude on how to drive carefully.”
CONCLUSION
Attitude change is affected by three elements. It is affected by the cognitive function of an attitude, the affective function of an attitude, and the behavioral function of an attitude. Successful attitude change programs and campaigns should address these three aspects of attitude and attitude change.
Attitude change programs need to appeal to a person’s thinking and reasoning. They must also present information that is concise and practical as well as appeal to a person’s current knowledge and experience. Attitude change programs or campaigns are required to have relevant information in order to be successful and effective.
Successful attitude change programs should also address the emotional function of the attitude, whether it is through scare tactics or through inducing feelings of confidence and empowerment within the individual. It is important that attitude change initiatives engage the individual in a context that they find meaningful and worthwhile.
Attitude change programs or campaigns also need to equip an individual to effectuate their changed attitude in order to strengthen it. They must provide resources and support so that individuals or groups can effectively express the behaviors associated with their new attitude.
Overall, these three components must be implemented together in order for attitude change to take place and for an effective and successful program to be completed.

References

Commonwealth of Australia (2005). Healthy Active Australia. Healthy Active Australia, www.healthyactive.gov.au

Downing, J. W., Judd, C. M., & Brauer, M. (1992). Effects of repeated expressions on attitude extremity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 17-29

Egley, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The Psychology of Attitudes. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York.

Fazio, R. H. (1989). On the power and functionality of attitudes: The role of attitude accessibility. In Pratkanis, A. R., Breckler, S. J., & Greenwald, A. G., Attitude Structure and Function. Hillsdale, Erlbaum.

Gass, R. H., & Seiter, J. S., (2003). Persuasion, Social Influence and Compliance Gaining. Pearson Education, United States of America. 2

Larson, C. U. (2007). Persuasion: Reception and Responsibility. Thomson Wadsworth, California.

Manfredo, M. J. (1992). Influencing Human Behaviour: Theory and Applications in Recreation, Tourism, and Natural Resources Management. Sagamore Publishing, Illinois.

Roskos-Ewoldson, D. R. (2004). Fear appeal messages affect accessibility of attitudes toward the threat and adaptive behaviours. Communication Monographs. 49-69

Schiffman, L., & Kanuk L., (1997). Consumer Behaviour. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Chaiklin H. Attitudes, Behavior, and Social Practice. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare. 2011.