INTRODUCTION “Technology is just a tool

INTRODUCTION
“Technology is just a tool. In terms of getting the kids working together and motivating them, the teacher is most important.” – Bill Gates
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Blended learning, a new approach in educational planning, is defined as an applying more than one method, strategy, technique or media in education. Today’s, due to the development of infrastructure of Internet networks and the access of most of the students, the Internet can be utilized along with traditional and conventional methods of training. Training is known as an agent of change and progress in human. Improvement of educational quality has been considered in medical fields, and its importance is growing gradually. The blended revolution that has empowered students in developing nations is just now spreading to developing countries with improved internet access; students have opportunities to experience blended and mobile learning. Blended and mobile learning can assist countries with increased educational access and online providers opportunities to reach new international markets. Technology has furled the distance – learning environment from correspondence courses, to radio and TV to videoconferencing, to online and now to blended and mobile learning.
Blended learning is an interactive, student-centered approach that integrates engaging online content with the best features of classroom interaction. This approach also personalizes student learning and includes several forms of assessment for students and instructor. Several definitions of blended learning were proposed by several researchers. It should be noted that there are other names being used for blended learning such as hybrid learning, integrated learning, multi-method learning, or mixed method learning (Node, 2001).

Al-Zoubi and Bani- Doumi (2013) summarized the factors which contribute to the success of blended learning as follows:

• Communicating and guidance: the learner in this method doesn’t know when will he need help, and the equipment, tools and applications needed in order to examine his skills, so, blended learning ought to incorporate instructions concerning the behaviors, activities and expectations, as well as methods for diagnosis and tasks recommended for the learner and written and well specified roles.
• Collective work: in blended learning, every individual ought to be persuaded that participation of all students as a team, in which each member has specific roles, is important.
• Encouraging innovative work: blended learning encourages self-learning and group learning, because the technological means available in blended learning makes this possible, through class interactions which encourage innovation and improves work.
• Flexible choices: blended learning enables students to access information and answer questions regardless of time and place, and the previous learning of the student. Thus, blended learning should incorporate several flexible choices which enable students to find those suitable to their preferences.
• Participation of the students in choosing the suitable blend: the teacher ought to assist his students in choosing the suitable blend (online learning, individual work, traditional lecturing, reading printed materials, e-mail). The teacher motivates students as well, and ensures that they choose activities suitable for the achievement of mastery and maximum efficiency.
• Continuous communication: a quick means of communication should be available for both learners and instructors for guidance all the time, and network communication among students should be available for the purposes of sharing information, solving problems and sharing applications.
• Repetition: repetition is one of the most important features of blended learning, and one of the factors which contribute to its success, because it enables learners to receive the same message from several sources, in different forms and at different times. Thus, a lesson can be delivered in a traditional manner, then through the web. And supervisors of the program can hold a seminar which tackles the topic another time, and video conference about the same topic can be used, in addition to the use of chatting and e-mails and Self-administered exams can be applied also. All those repetitions enrich the topic, and meet the needs of learners. What is important is that all those repetitions and various versions ought to be of a high level technology.
1.1 SCIENCE LEARNING
Science education is designs to share scientific data and events with students who are not part of the scientific community but have to benefit from scientific understanding. It is a way to make students scientifically literate about general concepts that pertain to scientific discovery. Science education usually includes the subject areas of physical, life, earth and space sciences. The aim of teaching any school subject must always be directed towards achieving the aims of education in general. The teaching of science as a subject must, therefore contribute to the all-round development of the child so that they comes out as socially useful and efficient citizen of the modern scientific world. According to Kothari commission “The destiny of the country is being shaped in the class rooms”. To achieve the designed goals and to meet the situation in a suitable way the teacher has to play a very vital role in educational institution. Teaching is considered both an art and a science.
Successful and effective teaching requires two basic things. The teacher should be competent to teach the subject allotted to him/her and at the same time he/she should follow new techniques of teaching to make the learning fruitful and interesting. Teaching and learning process forms an integral part of education. The effectiveness of teaching and learning could be measured in terms of the level of achievement of students in the subject of study and the effectiveness of teaching and learning depends upon both the teacher and the student. To increase the level of achievement in any subject, the teacher and the students need to have knowledge of blended learning to be employed. The new educational policy suggested measure to redesign the science curriculum so as to make it related to life. To improve the quality and effectiveness of teaching and learning in schools must look into what teachers and students do in classrooms. During this period the subject was usually taught as general science in most of the states. However, at the secondary stage science was an optional subject, which was offered either as a combination of physical science and biology or as physics, chemistry and biology. The syllabus of science and textbooks were prescribed by the respective state agencies. The content and process of science teaching in schools, therefore, varied from one state to another.
The major objectives identified were:
• To acquire the knowledge of chemistry.
• To develop scientific attitudes such as objectives outlook, integrity, accuracy and precision, avoiding hasty conclusion on insufficient data.
The technology modules introduced at this stage should be more advanced than at the upper primary stage. The modules should involve design, implementation using the school workshop, if possible, and testing the efficacy of the modules by qualitative and quantitative parameters. The various components of the science curriculum indicated above should be integrated imaginatively.
1.2 LEARNING CHEMISTRY:
Chemistry is one of the most important branches of science; it enables learners to understand what happened around them. Because chemistry topics are generally related to or based on the structure of matter, chemistry proves a difficult subject for many students. Chemistry curricula commonly incorporate many abstract concepts, which are central to further learning in both chemistry and other sciences (Taber, 2002). These abstract concepts are important because further chemistry/science concepts or theories cannot be easily understood if these underpinning concepts are not sufficiently grasped by the student (Zoller, 1990; Nakhleh, 1992; Ayas & Demirba?, 1997; Coll & Treagust, 2001a; Nicoll, 2001). The abstract nature of chemistry along with other content learning difficulties (e.g. the mathematical nature of much chemistry) means that chemistry classes require a high-level skill set (Fensham, 1988; Zoller, 1990; Taber, 2002).
Chemistry is often regarded as a difficult subject, an observation that sometimes repels learners from continuing with studies in chemistry. With the establishment of new syllabuses in chemistry for secondary schools in different countries in the last decayed. One of the essential characteristics of chemistry is the constant interplay between the macroscopic and microscopic levels of thought, and it is this aspect of chemistry (and physics) learning that represents a significant challenge to novices (Bradley & Brand,1985). In his early study, Johnstone (1974) reported that the problem areas in the subject, from the pupils’ point of view, persisted well into university education, the most difficult topics being the mole, chemical formulae and equations, and, in organic chemistry, condensations and hydrolysis.
Over a number of years, many of the above difficult areas was subjected to systematic study to try to identify the point of difficulty and to seek common factors among the nature of these difficulties (Johnstone et al., 1977; Duncan ; Johnstone, 1973; Kellett ; Johnstone, 1974; Garforth et al., 1976). Johnstone and El-Banna (1986) suggested a predictive model that enabled them to raise and test an important hypothesis,which was then applied to chemistry learning as well as to learning in other science disciplines.
Chemistry, by its very nature, is highly conceptual. While much can be acquired by rote learning (this often being reflected by efficient recall in examination questions), real understanding demands the bringing together of conceptual understandings in a meaningful way. Thus, while students show some evidence of learning and understanding in examination papers, researchers find evidence of misconceptions, rote learning, and of certain areas of basic chemistry which are still not understood even at degree-level (Johnstone, 1984; Bodner, 1991): What is taught is not always what is learned.

1.3 LEARNING DIFFICULTIES IN CHEMISTRY:
Many students from secondary schools to universities in many countries struggle to learn chemistry and many do not succeed (Reid.L.,2008). Research has shown that many students do not correctly understand fundamental chemistry concepts (Kamisah,O.,;Nur,S.,2013). And also many of the scientifically incorrect ideas held by the students go unchanged from the early years of the schooling to university and sometimes beyond (Sozbiler,M.;Pynarbapy,A.N.C.,T.,2010). By not fully and appropriately understanding fundamental concepts, many students have trouble understanding the more advanced concepts that build upon these fundamental concepts (Thomas, P.L. ,1997) . Many high school and university students experience difficulties with fundamental ideas in chemistry (Carson,J.,; Watson, E. M,2002). Despite the importance of the foundation of chemistry, most students emerge from introductory courses with very limited understanding of the subject (Ochs, R.S.,1996) .
Chemistry had been regarded as a difficult subject for students by many researchers, teachers and science educators because of the abstract nature of many chemical concepts, teaching styles applied in class, lack of teaching aids and the difficulty of the language of chemistry. Chemistry being one of the most important branches of science enables learners to understand what happened around them. Because chemistry topics are generally related to or based on the structure of matter, chemistry appears to be a difficult subject for many students.
Chemistry curricula commonly incorporate many abstract concepts, which are central to further learning in both chemistry and other sciences. Chemistry concepts or theories can never be easily understood if the underpinning concepts are not sufficiently grasped by the student. The abstract nature of chemistry along with other content learning difficulties (e.g. the mathematical nature of much of chemistry) means that chemistry classes require a high-level skill set. Science inquiry has been highly advocated to be implemented in middle and high school science since the last century. Some common constraints to implement inquiry in Chemistry include inadequate Chemistry knowledge and nature of science, lack of pedagogical skills.
1.4 INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY
In recent years reference to ‘digital technology in the classroom’ (DTC) can be taken to mean digital processing systems that encourage active learning, knowledge construction, inquiry, and exploration on the part of the learners, and which allow for remote communication as well as data sharing to take place between teachers and/or learners in different physical classroom locations. This is an expanded notion of technologies that recognizes their development from mere information delivery systems and also clarifies their role in classrooms in contrast to their wider use across schools and learning centers.

Other Terms Associated with Digital Technologies in the Classroom:
NITION EX
• Bring your own device (BYOD)
Definition : learners bring their own technology into the classroom for use as part of the learning activity.

Example : Mobile phone is used to browse the internet as part of a research Activity.

Benefits : Greater range of technologies available and lower cost to institution

• E-portfolios
Definition : Learners and teachers create an electronic catalogue of work that tracks their learning journey. This is usually online and often uses multimedia files.

Example : A student portfolio of artwork is presented online through an e-portfolio. This includes scans of their sketches, photographs of displays and visits to galleries, written reflections, narrated videos of the artist (learner) at work and an audio logbook.

Benefits : Provides a way of quickly and seamlessly presenting a wide variety of material in different formats including details of process.

• Flipped classroom
Definition : Learners discover new content before the lesson from online videos Or resources and then apply this knowledge in more personalized work in the classroom.

Example : Learners watch a video at home about how sedimentary rocks are transformed into metamorphic rocks. In class they work in groups to collaboratively create a diagram explaining this process of transformation.

Benefits : More time for activities that promote deeper understanding and Reflection.

• Personal Learning Network (PLN)
Definition : A PLN is an individual’s loose collection of links with other people or resources. The aim of such a network is to facilitate an exchange of ideas that supports learning.

Example : Links can be through, for example: online interest groups for example on Twitter and/or online and face-to-face courses.
Benefits : Access to a wide range of perspectives and expertise beyond the confines of the physical institution.

• Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)

Definition : A VLE is an e-learning education system that is web-based, but modelled on conventional face-to-face education. It provides access to courses, course content, assessments, homework, links to external resources etc.

Example : Moodle Blackboard.

Benefits : Easy way to collate and organise courses and information
flexibility of access.
classroom continued
• Interactive Whiteboards (IWB)
It allows images from a computer to be displayed through a digital projector, onto a large usually wall-mounted) board. Users can interact with the content on the board using fingers or a stylus.
• Software Applications (Apps)
They are designed to operate on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.
• Web 2.0 :
It refers to the second generation of the World Wide Web. Web 2.0 includes features and functionality that were not available before, for example. podcasts, blogs, wikis, RSS (Rich Site Summary – used for updating regularly changing web content), social networking and tagging.

Benefits of Digital Technologies in the Classroom
The potential benefits of DTC are that it can foster dialogic and emancipatory practice. Dialogic practice is that in which students are active, engaged and empowered participants in a conversation from which learning emerges.
? Different technologies can improve learning by augmenting and connecting learning activities
? Digital technology can often also be exciting for learners and offers a potentially more engaging alternative. At the same time it is important to be aware that some learners may be less confident in learning with digital technologies and steps need to be taken to ensure equality of access.
? Digital technology offers immediate feedback for both the learner and the teacher.
Term Definition Example Benefit(s) Risk(s)
Teachers Support the Use of Digital Technologies in the Classroom
Teachers can make the best use of technology in the classroom by developing their awareness of a range of digital technologies and considering carefully both how and why they can be used to support students’ learning. Effective selection of software and devices is only part of the story. The consideration of what learning will be achieved and how the technology may help is fundamental to its effective deployment.
The SAMR (Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition) model developed by Dr Ruben Puentedura is a useful reference when considering the implementation of technology in the classroom. The educational technology often follow as they integrate their teaching and learning with technology.
Substitution

1.5 INTRODUCTION TO BLENDED LEARNING
Whitlock and Jelfe (2003) proposed three definitions for blended learning as follows: the complete integration of traditional learning and internet-assisted learning; the integration of instructional means and the use of educational technology in learning; and the integration of several instructional methods regardless of technology.

Bersin (2003) defines blended learning as a modern method which depends on technology and the use of instructional methods suitable for solving the problems related to class management as well as the learning-directed activities, which require accuracy and mastery. It can be concluded that blended learning is an instructional method that integrates computer technology and the traditional methods familiar to teachers.

Salameh (2005) suggests that blended learning is the acceptable alternative of e-Learning, and which creates higher returns and requires lower costs and is the most developed modern learning method. Blended learning can be defined as the process of blending the traditional roles of teachers with the roles of the e-teacher in classes. Thus it is a learning which integrates traditional and electronic learning.

Al-Khan (2005) suggests blended learning is a strategy that incorporates both the direct learning through the internet as well as indirect learning. Direct e-learning usually incorporates the use of intra-and internet, while indirect learning is the one applied in traditional classes. An example of this type of learning is a learning program which provides educational materials and research sources on the web, while the guidance of the teacher and training sessions provide an essential instructional means.

According to Bonk ; Graham (2006) the most important features of blended learning include decreasing the cost of learning significantly, face to face interaction, supporting the humanistic aspects and social relations among learners, and between them and the teacher, the flexibility required for the fulfillment of the individual needs, the learning styles of students from different backgrounds, ages and regions, using the technological development in designing, implementation and practice, enrichment of knowledge, improving the quality of teaching process, learning outcomes and the efficiency of teachers, as well as the educated discourse among the various cultures and making use of the new developments in sciences.

The chemistry faculty who have taught both lecture and hybrid formats have noticed an increase in student preparedness. The research evidence from the student course questionnaire, combined with the evidence that the more time students spent using the blended learning class guides, the better they scored on their final exam, supports the supposition that the guides are an integral component in creating this successful hybrid course. However, the team realizes that because the traditional lecture course did not have any means of capturing the amount of time on task students spent outside the classroom, it is impossible to directly calculate and compare the impact of the guides on the blended learning format versus the lecture. Additionally, the redesign team realizes that other factors in the Chemical Principles hybrid course redesign also contributed to student success and retention. In the future, the team plans to examine the extent to which the use of clickers, multimedia, and online quizzes contributed to enhancing student success in the course.

The blended learning class guides provide more than a detailed syllabus or simple online study guide. The integration of instructor-guided materials, practice exercises, and interactive, multimedia tutorials, games, and simulations in the documented guides format has shown promise in assisting lower level, general education chemistry students in better understanding course content, which has led to improved student test scores and course retention. While not every aspect of a class guide may be appropriate for all hybrid courses, this type of guide could be replicated, customized, and utilized in a variety of hybrid or online course learning environments to further enhance student achievement and retention. The improved student success and retention, the faculty in the chemistry department have committed to teaching the General Chemistry course in the blended format. This has created course consistency among all the sections because the students receive identical materials each class day and take a variation of the same exam. The time spent preparing for the class by individual instructors has also dramatically decreased because the lecture has been replaced with in-class problem-solving activities and the online blended learning class guides. The instructors collaborate to ensure that the problems given to students are appropriate and relevant, but no individual instructor is responsible for the whole course. Finally, after the module a short quiz will be given in order to gauge the level of comprehension gained from the online module. A key element of this project is that there are two sets of questions with different types of construction. The pre/post quiz scores will be analyzed to try and see if one question was superior to the other. Driscoll (2002) identifies four different concepts in blended learning
• To combine or mix modes of web-based technology (e.g., live virtual classroom, self-paced instruction, collaborative learning, streaming video, audio, and text) to accomplish an educational goal.
• To combine different teaching methods based on multiple theories (e.g., constructivism, behaviourism, cognitivism) to produce an optimal learning outcome with or without instructional technology.
• To combine any form of instructional technology (e.g., videotape, CD-ROM, webbased training, film) with face-to-face instructor-led training.
• To mix or combine instructional technology with actual job tasks in order to create a harmonious effect of learning and working.

Learner characteristics/background and blended learning effectiveness
Studies indicate that student characteristics such as gender play significant roles in academic achievement but no study examines performance of male and female as an important factor in blended learning effectiveness. It has again been noted that the success of blended learning is highly dependent on experience in internet and computer applications Rigorous discovery of such competences can finally lead to a confirmation of high possibilities of establishing blended learning.
Research agrees that the success of blended learning can largely depend on students as well as teachers gaining confidence and capability to participate in blended learning note in their research that 75% of students and 72% of teachers were lacking in skills to utilize ICT based learning components due to insufficient skills and experience in computer and internet applications and this may lead to failure in e-learning and blended learning. It is therefore pertinent that since the use of blended learning applies high usage of computers, computer competence is necessary to avoid failure in applying technology in education for learning effectiveness.
The learners’ computer literacy and time management are crucial in distance learning contexts and concluded that such factors are meaningful in online classes. This support the learners to posses time management skills and computer skills necessary for effectiveness in e- learning and blended learning. Self-regulatory skills of time management lead to better performance and learners’ ability to structure the physical learning environment leads to efficiency in blended learning environments. Learners need to seek helpful assistance from peers and teachers through chats, email and face-to-face meetings for effectiveness factors such as learners’ hours of employment and family responsibilities are known to impede learners’ process of learning, blended learning. It was also noted that a common factor in failure and learner drop-out is the time conflict which is compounded by issues of family, employment status as well as management support. A study shows that work, family, insufficient time and study load made learners withdraw from online courses.
Learner attitudes to blended learning can result in its effectiveness and these shape behavioral intentions which usually lead to persistence in a learning environment, blended inclusive. The learners’ attitudes towards blended learning are success factor for these learning environments. Learner performance by age and gender in blended learning has been found to indicate no significant differences between male and female learners and different age groups. This implies that the potential for blended learning to be effective exists and is unhampered by gender or age differences.

Blended learning success factors:
The success of blended learning is based on a number of factors that must be met and taken into account when designing and implementing blended learning. Baldwin-Evans (2006), Almousa (2005) have all indicated a number of these factors, including:
• Good planning: includes determining the function and role of both the teacher and the learner, and to identify how to use e-learning tools by both teachers and learners accurately.
• Providing hardware: by ensuring the availability of various devices used in a blended learning environment, both for learners or at the educational institution.
• The diversity of sources: the blended learning environment enables learners to access different information and resources, regardless of place or time.
• Ensure learner readiness: This is done by ensuring their skills levels in the use of the computer and Internet, and technological culture.
• Training: train learners on how to use the e-learning communication tools via the internet, and how to access the learning resources through these tools.
• Providing support and assistance: this begins at the end of the training. Some essentials of a new skill may not be used directly in the training programme, and can be easily lost; therefore, it is important to provide learners continued support.

1.6. APPROACHES IN TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS

An approach is an enlightened viewpoint toward teaching. It provides philosophy to the whole process of instruction. The method and technique are just part and parcel of approach. Approach gives the overall wisdom; it provides direction, and set expectations to the entire spectrum of the teaching process. Furthermore, approach sets the general rule or general principle to make learning possible.

Teaching Approach is like a description of how we go about teaching our students. This description explains what we do when we teach.

• The sorts of teaching and learning activities that we have planned (lecture, tutorial, self – directed learning, case study, workshop, workplace learning);
• Ways in which we try to engage students with the subject matter ( provide students with basic facts, relate new knowledge to what students already know, build in interaction, be passionate, be enthusiastic);
• The ways in which we support our students ( encourage questions, set formative assessments and provide constructive feedback).

Advantages of Blended Learning

Asynchronous learning
This means that students can learn the same material at different times and locations (Any Time and Any Place) in addition to face-to-face learning. The learner can have access to the course at any time that is convenient, not just during the specific 2-3 hour period that is set for a traditional course. Also, learners do not have to meet in a lot of face-to-face lessons. That means they can be anywhere. Individuals can log-on at home, work, in the library, in a community learning centre or from their flats and hotels when they travel. Also, asynchronous learning leads to increased reflection time (Heckman and Annabi, 2005).

Self-study
This means students will learn how they can study independently and individually. They will need to manage themselves as learners, and not to rely on teachers and lecturers to give them direct answers and all the information and, most importantly, to work on achieving intellectual independence. Also, student-centered learning is generally perceived by students as more appealing and puts greater responsibility on the student (McMahon & Oliver, 2001).

Flexibility of attendance
In many of the blended learning classrooms, there is the possibility to study whenever the student chooses to do so. For example, if any student is absent, she may view some of the missed materials at the same time as the rest of the class, even though the student cannot be physically in the classroom. This helps students stay on track and not fall behind, which is especially helpful for students with prolonged sickness or injury that could prevent them from attending class (Alvarez, 2005).
Benefits of face-to-face:
When students have a meeting, they actually will get direct face-to-face interaction with the teachers who can help them. This face-to-face learning where the students and teacher meet in a classroom is very effective in giving learning a personal touch as it were. It is good for workshops, job training and coaching. Also, there will be a sense of ease in communication and information sharing, exercises, immediate feedback on activities.

1.7 DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY BASED BLENDED LEARNING APPROACH

Most psychologists believe that transmitting the Education to Learners is related to educational conditions, and this education should be organized for each learner based on her/his talent and capability. Due to the limitations of the lecture method, many experts emphasize completion of traditional teaching methods and use of blended teaching methods. The Digital Technology Based Blended Learning is actually a combination of two or more methods that use other teaching methods such as multimedia courses, seminars and e-learning, in addition to the present classes. Experience has shown that well-designed hybrid courses enhance student learning and increase student retention, even in large introductory science classes. Digital Technology Based Blended learning class guides present digital content in an instructor-guided and consistent format within a course management system.
Digital learning materials embedded in blended learning consists of interactive multimedia tutorials, podcasts, videos, and simulations to engage students, to influence time on task in their learning and promoting their success. One of the first challenges the investigator faced in creating the online guides was determining the most appropriate technology to use. The principal criteria applied to the selection of technology were: cost and development time, ease of maintaining and updating for faculty, and ease of use for students. The investigator decided that using a combination of mature and simple to use technologies was the most sensible choice, which led to initially designing and developing the guides in Microsoft PowerPoint. Also, it was possible to use this software to create a pleasing design background, develop navigation buttons, and integrate hyperlinks. This PowerPoint class guide would then be saved in a Portable Document Format (PDF). This would allow the instructor to upload a self-contained guide that could not be edited by the students but allowed universal access through a freely available Adobe Reader software package preinstalled on all campus lab computers as well as being downloadable for the students’ personal computers. The blended learning class guides aided in the transformation of a traditional lecture-based course into a successful hybrid course. The class guides enabled the instructors to move much of the lecture content outside the classroom, and as a result allowed them to create a peer-led team-learning environment in class.
The chemistry faculty, through the use of clickers, can more actively guide and engage students in learning in the classroom. A central aim of the guides was to expose the students to important content just prior to the class session covering the material, enabling them to come to class better prepared. The guides encouraged student use in a number of ways, including assigning a few points to the pre-class assignment component, providing a helpful textbook study guide resource, and integrating both multimedia and interactive learning materials that can engage various student learning styles.

1.8 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Chemistry is a search for explanation and interaction of facts and ideas. The major task of professional preparation for Chemistry teacher is to develop a teaching style based on approach which helps students to improve the achievement. Technology and education are a great combination if used together with a right reason and vision. Technology gives students immediate access to an abundance of quality information which leads to learning at much quicker rates than before. This made the investigator to proceed to develop a model to improve the level o achievement in Chemistry. The title of the present study is “EFFECTIVENESS OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY BASED BLENDED LEARNING ON ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.”

1.9 NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Students’ achievement in science is derived from the teachers’ capacity to reach out to deprived children and to create a rich digital technology based blended learning environment for them. Effective teaching depends on the methodology and technology of teaching. Teaching is a process in which the teacher and the students create an interactive environment in such a way that the students become effective and productive learners. So it is necessary to enhance the student’s achievement in science.
1.10 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In this rapidly changing world the challenge of teaching is to help students’ skills which will not become obsolete. Digital technology based blended learning Approach is essential for the twenty first century. They will enable the students to successfully cope up with new situations. Teachers in particular and school in general to refer technology strategies that have been more successful in increasing sustained voluntary attention in classroom settings than approaches that assumes a passive learner. Research on technology strategies has produced effective tools for classroom teaching and learning.
1.11 CONCLUSION
From the perspectives of instructional methodologies digital technology based blended learning approach which involves more efficient use of knowledge and strategies is found desirable. Digital technology based blended learning benefits the learners more than any other learning methodology. This is because a technology environment enhances optimum level of information processing ability. The focalization and concentration of attention is achieved through facilitating consciousness. A case made out in this thesis for the promotion of a Digital technology based blended learning approach and corresponding creation of a technology environment to facilitate effective instruction and learning of science.