Gender Bias and poverty:
Gender bias can operate in two different ways. First, women may be discriminated against in the work. Discriminating employers may favour males to female candidates. If we see the other aspect, women may not be recruited in high salary jobs, not because the employer discriminates against them, but because they are not found appropriate for such jobs. This could happen if the job requires skills, and women are not competent than males. This gets reflected in lower incomes among females. If women are less skilled than males, then the responsibility for this kind of perception lies within the household, where the parents train, or educate, the boy child more than the girl child. While less schooling means less of human capital. This is another reason why females may earn less income.
Poverty and health issues:
The issue of poverty and health within the nation has remained predominant since Indian independence. The poverty dominant factor that leads to health related problems in both urban and rural populace. The rapid increase of the population, especially the slum inhabitants primarily suffers from Tuberculosis, Malaria and some water borne diseases. The major cause of these diseases is unhygienic environment. In slums area, there is lack of water, sanitation facility that leads to the growth of deadly diseases among the dwellers. The government has provided numerous medical facility centres for the poor people. The government should implement some new schemes for the slum dwellers. Some cleanliness awareness programme should be launched to generate wakefulness among poor for basic health knowledge. Some of the diseases such as tuberculosis, cholera transmit due to unhygienic atmosphere. In rural India, the major cause of health associated problems are poverty and lack of education. There are many disadvantages for which the government policies are still ineffective, especially related with health issue
POVERTY IN CHINA
In China today, poverty refers mainly to the rural poor, as decades of economic growth has largely eradicated urban poverty. The dramatic progress in reducing poverty over the past three decades in China is well known. According to the World Bank, more than 500 million people were lifted out of extreme poverty as China’s poverty rate fell from 88 percent in 1981 to 6.5 percent in 2012, as measured by the percentage of people living on the equivalent of US$1.90 or less per day in 2011 purchasing price parity terms.
Since the start of far-reaching economic reforms in the late 1970s, growth has fueled a remarkable increase in per capita income helping to lift more people out of poverty than anywhere else in the world: its per capita income has increased fivefold between 1990 and 2000, from $200 to $1,000. Between 2000 and 2010, per capita income also rose by the same rate, from $1,000 to $5,000, moving China into the ranks of middle-income countries. Between 1990 and 2005, China’s progress accounted for more than three-quarters of global poverty reduction and a big factor in why the world reached the UN millennium development of dividing extreme poverty by two. This incredible success was delivered by a combination of a rapidly expanding labour market, driven by a protracted period of economic growth, and a series of government transfers such as an urban subsidy, and the introduction of a rural pension. Independent studies by Gallup indicate the poverty rate in China fell from 26% in 2007 to 7% by 2012, although World Bank extrapolations suggest that the percentage of the population living below the international poverty line continued to fall to 4.1 percent in 2014. As of 2018 the number of people in poverty living below the national poverty line is around 30 million, about 2% of the population with hopes of totally eradicating poverty by 2020.
At the same time, however, income disparities have increased. The growing income inequality is illustrated most clearly by the differences in living standards between the urban, coastal areas and the rural, inland regions. There have also been increases in the inequality of health and education outcomes, and increased attention to unequal outcomes for ethnic minorities. To alleviate the situation, the Chinese government shifted its policy in recent years to encourage urban migration, fund education, health, and transportation infrastructure for poor areas and poor households.In addition the government is attempting to rebalance the economy away from investment and exports toward domestic consumption and public services, to help reduce social disparities. Relocation of the poor from poverty stricken regions to more developed urban areas is also being implemented as part of the holistic plan to tackle rural poverty.
China has maintained a high growth rate for more than 30 years since the beginning of economic reform in 1978, and this sustained growth has generated a huge increase in average living standards. 25 years ago, China had many characteristics in common with the rest of developing Asia: large population, low per capita income, and resource scarcity on a per capita basis. But in the 15 years from 1990–2005, China averaged per capita growth of 8.7%
The whole reform program is often referred to in brief as the “open door policy”. This highlights that a key component of Chinese reform has been trade liberalization and opening up to foreign direct investment, but not opening the capital account more generally to portfolio flows. China improved its human capital, opened up to foreign trade and investment, and created a better investment climate for the private sector.
After joining the WTO China’s average tariffs have dropped below 100%, and to around 5% for manufactured imports. It initially welcomed foreign investment into “special economic zones”. Some of these zones were very large, amounting to urban areas of 20 million people or more. The positive impact of foreign investment in these locations led to a more general opening up of the economy to foreign investment, with the result that China became the largest recipient of direct investment flows.
Effects of poverty
Cities vs. countryside
At the end of 2012 China became an urbanised country: its urban population (52%) is now larger than its rural one, for the first time in history. Still the problem remains that the other 48% suffers from a dual system that privileges cities for both social benefits (pension, healthcare, schools) and economic opportunities. The consequences for social stability and poverty in China are quite severe: tens of thousands of farmers are forced out of their land every year by private contractors for the sake of cities’ expansion and the wealth gap between urban and rural inhabitants has never been so big.
Forgotten by the economic boom
Poverty in China may be blatant in cities, but it’s in rural areas that the problem is most dire. In many villages, those who manage to sell everything they produce will only make about $1000/year. Earning that much means they don’t receive government support anymore and have to handle housing and other basic necessities on their own. At the same time, the soil in China yield less and less crops (particularly in arid provinces) and it’s often only enough to feed oneself properly. So, most of the younger generation leaves their villages to work in nearby cities and send money back to their parents. That remains the most common pension system in China. Inequalities between cities and rural areas keep growing and even between rural areas themselves.
Migrant workers: the cycle of discrimination and poverty
The appeal of cities has led some 250 million people to leave the countryside and create a new social class of its own: the migrant workers. They are workers (often with their families) registered as rural in their hukou who have decided to work in cities. They haven’t been accepted or registered as urban and as such they lose their most basic rights under the Chinese constitution: healthcare, education and social security.
To summarize, Poverty has been major issue to people because it causes the serious setback and hinder national development. It is prevalent at global scale and threatens some economic especially those in the Least Developing countries. Hence, the scale of poverty though varying in different parts of the world is known to be noticeable in the LDCs. Poverty is multidimensional Deficiency in income, illiteracy, malnutrition, mortality, morbidity, access to water and sanitation, susceptibility to economic shocks. Income deprivation is linked in many cases to other forms of deprivation, but do not always move together with others.
Theoretical studies and economic survey have shown that poverty has adverse impact on health of people. Inequality, population explosion, are some major issues which leads to poverty. Raanan Weitz (1986) stated that “While humanity shares one planet, it is a planet on which there are two worlds, the rich and the world of the poor”. These poor world countries are called the Third World. They are characterized by low monetary growth, low per capita income, low standards of living, and low level of technology, high illiteracy rate, and political instability. Allan Cochrane avowed that: A crucial aspect of poverty is the way in which it reduces ability of people to participate in the normal lives of their communities with stress being placed on the deprivation which results from the lack rather than low income itself”. Poverty can influence policy interfere in any society and it is central to strategy debates concerning development on safety issue. And hence the development of both India and China can be studied in terms of percentage of poor people.