FAR EASTERN FEDERAL UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF BIOMEDICINE
“EFFECT OF RAPID GROWTH OF OVER -POPULATION ON THE ECONOMY”
A Population is a group of interbreeding organisms in a specific region it is examined in terms of its variability, density and stability along with environmental and other processes and circumstances that affect these characteristics. Problems of population size and growth, resource utilization and depletion, and environmental deterioration must be considered on a global basis. population control is obviously not a panacea-it is necessary but not alone sufficient to see us through the crisis. Population density is a poor measure of population pressure and redistributing population would be a dangerous pseudo solution to the population problem.
“Excessive population growth may reduce output of individual worker, repress levels of living for the masses and engender strife.”
RAPID POPULATION GROWTH:
An increase in the number of people that reside in a country, state, county, or city. To determine whether there has been population growth, the following formula is used: (birth rate + immigration) – (death rate + emigration). The world’s population growth has touched a peak of 7.3 billion in 2015, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion, “population explosion is the result of falling mortality rates and contuning.
PROBLEMS THAT AFFECT THE WORLD TODAY
The problems we have today such as war, crime, food shortages, water shortages, water pollution, and air pollution; global warming and unemployment are the effects of over-population. The more people there are the more resources consumed and the more waste created on the land. The increased population causes poverty problems and deforestation and etc, According to our survey is the first country which has increased-population, so most of the peoples may change their places for their employment . If the population grows people will suffer to get their daily needs like food, cloths, shelter. And the forest is also being destroyed mainly due to over-population. The peoples will destroy the forest for constructing building and mostly constructions. Due to over population each and every people use motor bike, and other vehicles and burning fossil fuels that creates global warming and changes in climates and also many environmental degradation.
And it may also possible for couple who are unable to conceive to undergo fertility treatment methods and have their own babies. Today there are effective medicines which can increases the chance of conception and lead to rise in birth rate. Moreover, due to modern techniques pregnancies today are far more safer.
Problems of Overpopulation:
Explosion of Natural Resources
if human population increases it causes exhaustible natural resources such as arable land, coral reefs, fresh water, fossil fuels, and wilderness forests continue to drop sharply. It leads to the way of competitive demands on the essential resources and contributes to an horrible decline in the quality of our life.
For example, rainforests are being covered with 14% of the total earth’s surface. But now rainforests only cover about 6% of the earth’s surface and according to the scientists it has been gradually decreases after fourty years by the current rate of vegetation removal, logging, and deforestation. In addition to environmental pollution, 30% of the ocean reefs have been lost because of acidification and global warming since 1980. More than half of the original wetlands and coastal reefs have been lost
Loss of Biodiversity
Overpopulation has seen continued encroachment into frontier forests, increased pollution, and destruction of many natural ecosystems that has greatly contributed to the mass decreased of species. The number of threatened species had been results to multiply worldwide whereas some have completely gone extinct or destroyed in our environment.
This is due to the human activities such as acidifying water systems, over-exploitation of natural resources, pollution, over-fishing, poaching, and the deliberate as well as the indirect destruction of natural systems necessary for the survival of different species. These human activities simply alter the natural process combined, thus, destroying the natural ecosystems supporting biodiversity.
Depreciation of Fresh Water
The unrelenting nature of overpopulation on earth has destroyed most of the world’s freshwater systems. Most of the lakes, streams, rivers and groundwater making up fresh water have been made unreachable or become too polluted. According to the global outlook of water resources, these activities influenced by overpopulation have only left less than 1% of the planet’s freshwater readily accessible for human utilization.
Water vulnerability is already affecting many overpopulated nations, especially in some developing countries, as the demands for water tend to be more than the accessible water. Millions of fish species from freshwater ecosystems are on the verge of extinction. Thus, as human inhabitants rise in number, so will the problem of quality freshwater accessibility.
Lower Life Expectancy and Diminished Quality of Life
Overpopulation lowers the standards of living since it creates stress on the vital resources for survival and increases the difficulty of accessing the consistent supply of quality food, water, energy, health, security and shelter. Consequently, it makes the poor to become poorer, and they often opt for poor living conditions to survive.
Eventually, it gives rise to lower life expectancy. The situation is serious in developing nations such as southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where most of the poor populations submit to inadequate and poor diets.
Emergence of New Pandemics and Epidemics
According to WHO, overpopulation is one of the leading causes of the speedy occurrence and emergence of human diseases. Overpopulation worsens numerous environmental and social factors such as pollution, malnutrition, overcrowded living conditions, and lacking health care which makes poor communities vulnerable to infectious diseases. Diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, HIV, and dysentery spread faster in overpopulated areas.
Intensive Farming Practices
In regions where populations are high, people resort to farming practices that can produce more food products with cheaper inputs and without encroaching into surrounding lands due to the recent environmental protection policies. Intensive farming has thus resulted, and it has led to soil fertility depletion, re-emergence of parasites, the emergence of new parasites, loss of ecosystems, pollution of water systems, and decreased biodiversity.
Rise in Unemployment, Crime Rate, and Violence
In overpopulated nations, the available jobs are fewer than the overall job seeking population. This contributes to high levels of unemployment. In turn, lack of unemployment leads to elevated crime rates because of theft, drug cartels, and militia groups which are exploited as options for attaining basic resources and necessities such as food, good living standards, and wealth. Violence and conflicts arise when people start competing for the available limited resources.
REASONS FOR THE EXPLOSION:
The main reason for slow and fluctuating population growth prior to early 1800’s was the prevalence in epidemiology disease such as small pox, mumps, and measles and scarlet fever. In addition, epidemics, diphtheria of diseases such as typhoid, cholera, jaundice, diphtheria and plague and chicken pox washed out many of the large number of adults and families. Most of the peoples where die due to attack of newly disease without discovery of the medicines. Reproductive rates were largely equalized by high mortality of peoples. It causes spectacular reductions in mortality, especially among infants and children, so it causes increases in birth rate. Human population is to remain high in crowd. It entered in to exponential growth. After the new medicines and industrial revolution, the death rate is decreased and birth rate is increased, so the human population growth rate is high and results as over-population. People should subdivide their farms and lands among the children (or) intensifying their cultivations of existing land to increase production per unit area. Increasing population especially affects women and children. Over-population causes effects to the environment both positively and negatively.
Provide universal access to safe and effective contraceptive methods for both female and male preventing from over-population. With two in five pregnancies reported as mistimed or never wanted, lack of access to good family planning services is among the biggest gaps in assuring that each baby will be wanted and welcomed in advance by its parents. Guarantee education through secondary school for all, especially girls. In every culture surveyed to date, women who have completed at least some secondary school have fewer children on average and have children in future than do women who have less education. Eradicate gender bias from law, economic opportunity, health, and culture. Offer age-appropriate sexuality education for all students. End all policies that reward parents financially based on the number of children they have.
Effects of rapid population growth on labor supply and employment- Bloom, 381-414.
Bloom D. E (2011). Population dynamics in India and implications for economic growth.