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Done: Alanood Mohammad Almansoori
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Shouq AlhosaniID: 201601781
Mariam AlhosaniID: 201606071

Cigarette smoking declining in the United States
According to Glantz&Bareham (2018, p. 220), cigarette smoking habits have been declining in the United States over the past decade. Prevention efforts, anti-smoking laws, an increase in cigarette taxes, and research on smoking and health risks have lowered the country’s smoking rate to 15.1%. A report that was released by Shu-Hong Zhu, study author and UC San Diego professor of Family Medicine and Public Health and director of the Center for Research and Intervention in Tobacco Control claimed that the consumption of e-cigarettes was highly linked with higher quit for persons including at the population level, which has led to an overall increase of people quitting smoking.

Educating the Youth on the harmful effects of smoking
Apart from that, Scott McIntosh, PhD, associate professor of community and preventive medicine at the University of Rochester in New York and director of the Greater Rochester Area Tobacco Cessation Center has urged smokers not be in so much to seek off nicotine replacement as since quitting smoking is a process and one cannot just quit in a day. In spite of that, those smokers who cutoff smoking makes it easier than ever to break their addiction to nicotine.

Medications and Nicotine Replacement therapies
Research suggests that medications and nicotine replacement therapies can double and sometimes even triple the chances that a smoker will successfully quit. A review by Stead et al, 2012, p. 146) claims that some of these treatments also help to minimize weight gain while helping smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine replacement therapies deliver a powerfulinfluencedrugin many ways that are healthier and safer than cigarettes, besides with nicotine replacement therapies quit rates range from 19% to 26%.

Nicotine replacement therapies assist individuals who have tried to quit smoking but could not succeed since the craving for nicotine was too strong. Gum, lozenges, and patches are also available over-the-counter. Chantix (Varenicline) is the latest antismoking drug to win FDA approval, works by blocking nicotine receptors in the brain. According to Dotiga (2014), Chantix is usually prescribed for a 12-week period; about 33% of smokers who use the drug successfully quit.

The Effects of e-cigarettes
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NAS) has released a new report looking at more than 800 scientific studies about the effects of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) on users’ health. Most e-cigarettes contain and emit a variety of substances apart from nicotine that could be toxic. There is generally far less exposure to these other toxic substances from e-cigarettes than from regular cigarettes since using e-cigarettes can be addictive.
There is some evidence that the severity of an addiction to e-cigarettes likely depends on many factors, including the type and brand of the device, and the nicotine concentration and flavoring in the e-liquid used. There is some evidence that the severity of an addiction to e-cigarettes is lower than for regular cigarettes. Completely switching to e-cigarettes reduces the exposure to many toxins and cancer-causing substances in regular cigarettes According to Burns, (2014, p. 224), many adults who use e-cigarettes also continue to use other tobacco products, too. Therefore, completely switching to e-cigarettes can lower harmful effects on the body caused by smoking. Long-term effects are not yet clear because e-cigarettes are relatively new as they have only been on the market since 2006.

If you have tried and failed to quit smoking using one particular smoking cessation aid, such as nicotine replacement patches, it is advisable to try another method on your next attempt. However, if your previous attempts have ended because you gave into intense cravings, talk to your doctor about combining therapies such as nicotine replacement with drugs that will minimize those craving (Rockhill&Colditz, 2018).

E-cigarettes versus Tobacco product
Young people use e-cigarettes more than any other tobacco product, and use them at higher rates than adults. The NAS report found a strong association between the youth using e-cigarettes and their likelihood of trying conventional cigarettes. However, it is not yet clear whether young e-cigarette users who try regular cigarettes will continue smoking over a long term (Sandoiu, 2018). Most of the users, including youths, prefer to use flavored e-cigarettes; many flavors appear to be meant for children, with names such as Cherry Crush and Cotton Candy (Medical News Today). According to a report by David Eaton, chair of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) committee e-cigarettes are not simply classified as being harmful or beneficial.

References
Burns, D. (2014). How far we have come in the last 50 years in smoking attitudes and actions.Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 11(2), 224-226.Retrieved from
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3995250/Dotinga, R. (2015, February 17). Chantix Linked to Higher Quit Rates in Certain Smokers: Study. Retrieved from https://consumer.healthday.com/general-health-information-16/prescription-drug-news-551/chantix-linked-to-higher-quit-rates-in-certain-smokers-study-696557.htmlGlantz, S. A., &Bareham, D. W. (2018). E-cigarettes: use, effects on smoking, risks, and policy implications. Annual review of public health, 39, 215-235.

HYPERLINK “https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/full/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201308-258PS” https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/full/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201308-258PS
Organization, W. H. (2018). Should E-cigarette Use Be Included in Indoor Smoking Bans? Retrieved from http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/95/7/16-186536/en/
Stead, L. F., Perera, R., Bullen, C., Mant, D., Hartmann?Boyce, J., Cahill, K., & Lancaster, T.(2012). Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation.Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (11).

Rockhill B.,&Colditz. G. (2018) “Is Any Type of Smoking Safe?” American Cancer Society | Information and Resources About for Cancer: Breast, Colon, Lung, Prostate, Skin, 2018, www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/tobacco-and-cancer/is-any-type-of-smoking-safe.html.

Sandoiu, A. (2018, January 29). The pros and cons of e-cigarettes revealed. Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/320733.php
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