CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
Strathmore University was started in 1961 by the founder of Opus Dei, Saint Jose Maria Escriva. In March 1966 it admitted its first 25 students to take the accounting program which leads to the United kingdom Chartered Association of certified accounting.
Due to the demand of companies for professional training of employees, more courses of accountancy were introduced in 1982. In October 1982, 60 sponsored students were admitted to do the course.
At the same time the campus was being run, the high school was expanding simultaneously and this brought about the need for a better facility. The trustees then negotiated with the government which provided for them five acres of land in the Madaraka Estate along Ole Sangale Road. The European Union and the Italian Government agreed to back up the project. The donors also supported Kianda college which was a co-educational college that would offer courses in management and accountancy after normal working hours. The college agreed to run their courses in the new Madaraka campus.
An information technology center was started later on in 1991 and the campus began offering courses in Management Information Systems of which led to Diploma, Higher Diploma and graduate diploma at the completion of the course.
In 1992 Strathmore took into consideration those who could not attend classes by starting a distance learning center. In 1993 Strathmore moved to the new Madaraka campus.
In 1999 the school of management introduced an evening management course that provided administrative skills necessary for managers.
The commissioner of higher education awarded a letter of interim for it to operate as a university in August 2002.
The university obtained ISO 9001-2000 Certification from the Kenya Bureau of standards in October 2003. It was the first institution to attain this certificate in East and Central Africa.
The university has since grown and it offers more courses such as Tourism, Commerce, leadership, and Hospitality.

1.2 Statement of the problem
Strathmore has many departments in its structure but the point of focus in this project happens to be the lowest level of management which is one of the most important departments. The subordinate staff in the institution is the most interactive departments as it has direct contact with the people in the institution.
The subordinate staff should be highly regarded when it comes to motivational matters.
This is mostly because their work is very monotonous as they tend to work at the same place doing a repetitive task of which may cause boredom. This may at times cause poor performance leading to complaints from students and other members of the organization.

1.3 Research Objectives
To analyze the motivational styles of the subordinate staff at Strathmore University
To asses the strengths and weaknesses of the motivation systems in Strathmore University
To make recommendations taking into consideration human resource and financial implications
1.4 Research questions
How is the motivational system in Strathmore University?
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the motivational system in Strathmore University?
What systems can be used to rectify the motivational system in Strathmore University?
1.5 Justification of study
By improving the motivation systems of the Strathmore subordinate staff, benefits will cut across all departments including the students in the organization. Subordinate staff plays a vital role in the organization as the security department ensures the safety of the faculty, the cleaners ensure that there is top notch cleanliness, the cooks provide meals and the dress-code inspectors ensure uniformity and decency around the organization. When better motivation systems are implemented, the following will benefit:
Subordinate staff-They will be motivated to work harder and improve the standards of the organization.
Students-Students will enjoy a serene learning environment as they will have clean classrooms and libraries.
Lecturers-They will have an easier time teaching due to better organization and tranquility.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
1.6 Introduction
What is motivation? In layman language, motivation is something that drives one to act. Motivation is used in all aspects of life as a force that gives people the urge to be better every day. It also results in better results in life
In the working environment, motivation is very essential for the human resource. Lack of motivation may be detrimental to the organization as it may cause poor effort and lack of proactivity among the workers. This results in losses in the organization. The following chapter describes the various aspects in the field of motivation.
1.7 Definition
Motivation is a state of mind that energizes, directs and sustains behavior (John L. Pierce and Donald G. Gardner)
(E.F.L. Breach) has defined it as, ” Motivation is a general inspiration process which gets the members of the team to pull their weight effectively,  to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the tasks that they have accepted and generally to play an effective part in the job that the group has undertaken”.
(Edwin B. Flippo) has further defined as “Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do their work through the possibility of getting rewards”
1.8 Theories of motivation
There are various theories that explain motivation. Some of the most common theories are:
Needs-based theory
Extrinsic factor theory
Intrinsic factor theory
Management theory
1. Needs-based theory
This theory mainly focuses on the personal needs of a worker. It studies workers behavior and their greatest motivational factors. The needs-based theory is divided into four categories.
Maslow’s Hierarchy needs
This theory was invented by Abraham Maslow, a psychologist in the 20th century. Abraha Maslow discovered that human needs are hierarchical. He realized that human beings align themselves with the greatest good/need which is self-actualization. The needs are arranged in a way that human beings must achieve the most basic good in order to reach self-actualization. The following diagram describes the hierarchy of needs.

Physiological needs
These are basic needs that a human being needs to survive in the day to day activities. They are the necessities of life and without them, it is rather difficult for a human being to survive. They include needs such as Food, shelter, clothing, air, and water.
Safety needs
These are needs that deal with man’s security. In order for man to live a comfortable life they have to live without fear and this is made possible by safety needs. Safety can be assured with health insurances, jobs, and education
Social needs
All human beings have the urge of belonging to a society or group of people. They want to be loved and accepted by a certain group of people with the same interests as them. They could be family, workmates or even friends.
Esteem needs
This is the need of satisfying one’s ego. Human beings want to be respected, appreciated and recognized in different areas of their life. For example, at work one may want to be the employee of the month, at school one may want to be the top student, a parent may want to be appreciated by his/her children and a child might want to impress his/her parents.
Self-actualization
This is the highest point of satisfaction. It is the man actually discover themselves. They know all their capabilities, advantages and disadvantages. They have tested most aspects of life by experimenting with many ideas and skills and have understood themselves.
ERG theory
This theory focuses on all the aspects that drive one to behave in a certain way. It suggests that individuals frustrated to satisfy one need are likely to redirect their focus to another need. For example, a businessman who is making losses may start looking into other related factors affecting his/her business such as poor customer service.
Two-factor theory
This factor focuses on two aspects:
Hygiene factors
Motivation factors
Hygiene factors focus on the working environment. A poor working environment may demotivate workers. Examples of poor working conditions are poor sanitation, rude employers, lack of equipment and lack of breaks.
Motivational factors, on the other hand, are seen as intrinsic. They are the worker’s perspectives towards the job. They include job interest, achievements advancement, and growth opportunities.
Acquired needs theory
This theory is centered on the different needs human beings have of which are related to their experience. They are divided into three; the need for power, need for achievement and need for affiliation. People are matched to their jobs based on the above needs. A person in need of power is mostly given authoritative jobs for instance managers. One in need for achievement is mostly given challenging tasks that will give them satisfaction on completion. Those in need of affiliation are mostly good at group work.
2. Extrinsic and intrinsic factor theory
These two theories can be categorized into the two-factor theory. Extrinsic factors affecting ones motivation are external factors(hygiene factors) while intrinsic factors are internal factors(Motivation) as described above.
3. Management theory
Management theory is divided into two theory x, y, and z.
Theory x believes in workers having to be pushed and supervised in order to produce results. The workers are not normally internally motivated to do things.
Theory y believes in workers being internally motivated. There is little to no supervision in this theory. The workers love working and do not need to be pushed to do anything.

Theory z states that committed employees are motivated to produce more results. It is a comparison of the American and Japanese systems.
1.9 Factors affecting motivation
There are various factors that affect motivation. These factors are divided into monetary and non-monetary factors.
Monetary factors
These are money driven factors. Employs work harder to improve their financial status. It is given in the following ways:
Salaries
Employers tend to increase the salaries of their workers in an attempt to motivate them. This can be done by assessing the time a worker has worked and the various extra tasks a worker has accomplished.
Incentives
Incentives are given to improve the welfare of the employees. It can be done through giving of allowances such as health, educational and house allowances.
Bonuses
A certain increment can be made on the salary of a worker. It is normally regulated by a rate.
Nonmonetary factors
These are factors that do not involve money. Workers can be motivated to work by other ways that exclude monetary terms in the following ways;
Improving the working conditions
Improving the working conditions enable workers to work more comfortably and this motivates them to work harder. It shows a sense of care from employers of which is highly appreciated by the workers through hard work. Working conditions can be improved in ways such as; introducing better equipment, improving the hygiene standards and offering of off days to employees.
Job security
This is done by assuring workers that they will maintain their jobs for a reasonable time. Longterm employment motivates workers to work harder as their loyalty to the company increases.
Job enrichment
Employees are given more tasks in their areas of operation in order to give them a feeling of accomplishment at the end of the tasks. This motivates them ass they feel more important and crucial to the organization.

Appreciation
When workers are recognized for their efforts they gain a sense of belonging. This is done through introductions of awards such as the employee of the month awards. Many workers compete for the awards hence making the organization as a whole more productive.
Minor forms of motivation
Everyone has diferent ways of getting motivated and some of them may not be among the mentioned above. Here are some examples of minor motivational forms:
Fear based motivtion
In some workpalces, the heads of the institution inflict fear ino workers so that they can work hard. This fear is given by threats from the authority for instance, one may loose their job, be demoted or even get a lower payment in the case of not working accordingly. This may not be the best type of motivation but it is mostly used to workers who may be unruly.
Compitence based motivation
Striving to be the best is one of the most crucial goals a worker needs. Workers may at times do the best in their jobs as they want to outdo others in the same area of work. This pushes them to work harder and even do the extra work and research work to be more famiiar with their jobs than others. This form of motivation may be very valuable as workers are self driven.
Attitude based motivation
Perspectives play an imprtant role in ones motivation. The attitude of a worker determines how they perform. Bad attitude towrds a job may demoralize a worker from doing their best. It may cause conflict between the worker and other workers and even stress. When noticed, workers with poor attitudes towards their jobs should be questionned on what should be done or which jobs are best for them. On the other hand, workers with positive attitudes do not have motivational problems as they love their jobs.
2.0 Process of motivation
Motivating workers might seem like an easy thing but it is a process by itself to motivate workers. The following process explain the steps taken during motivation.
Need identification
This is the process of identifying the areas in which employees are disatisfied. The sense of disatisfaction among employess cause them to divert their atenton from their main course at work leading to low productivity.
Employees may be going through problems such as poor payment systems, poor working conditions and lack of interest in their jobs.
Search for ways to satisfy needs
After identifying their needs, employees come up with respective ways to deal with the problems. The employee comes up with alternatives on how to deal with the problem. They later on choose the best alternative to deal with the problem. For example from the problems above, poor payment sytsems can be corrected by the reduction of costs, better equipment ca be brought to an institution in order to imrove the working conditions and job enrichment can be done in order to increase the interest of workers in their jobs.
Selection of goal directed behaviours
After the best alternatives have been chosen, proactivity is needed for faster implimentation. For example workers may stop wasting resources, critica supervision of costs and introduction of other jobs for enrichment.
Attainment of the goal
After the staff’s behaviour is directed to the main goal, the goals are accomplished. When the goal is accomplished the system changes to either to the advantage or the disadvantage of the workers and these leads to the next step.
Assesment of the goal
The goals are assessed in order to ensure productivity. This ensures that the worker’s are more motivated and if not adjustments are made.
2.1 Major determinats of perfomance
To understand peoeple’s behaviour in a work place one has to analyze the determinants of performance.
Ability
This reffers to the capacity a worker has for a particular job. It is the knowledge, skill and receptiveness that a worker brings to a task or job. Skill refefrs to the special ability to do something and know what the area entails. Knowledge is the content that the particular woker knows about the task, while receptiveness is the rate at which they can adapt to new environments.
Role perceptions
This refers to the rate at which an indvidual comprehends his/her role in the organization. They should be aware of the work objectives and plans. Workers with better role perceptions produce better results as compared to those with limited knowledge on their roles.
Performance environment
These are factors that affect employees but are not in their control. A poor working evironment does not provide the neccessities needed to accomplish the best performance hence the results are poor. Employers should provide their customers with the best necessities in order for them to work in comfort.
Motivation
Workeres have different drives to perform. A workers perfomance highly depends on these drives. Lack of motivation results to poor performance as oppose to high levels of motivation,
2.2 Process theories of maotivation
These theories focus on how workers choose objectives and the actions they pertake in to achieve the objectives. There are four types of process theories; Goal, equity, expectancy and operant conditioning.
Goal theory
This theory beleives that people should set objectives and targets in order to perform better. Once there is a set goal focus towards the goal is increased in order to obtain the expected results.

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