Economic theory stresses the important role of human capital, among others, in extending and continuing economic growth or economic development. In developing resourceful human capital, proper and concrete training is required. Education and scholastic performance are important aspects to consider in developing human capital for sustainable development.
Child labor hinders the proper development of child’s skills and scholastic capabilities. The term “child labor” is frequently defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their ability and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. In its most extreme forms, child labor involves children being enslaved, separated from their families, exposed to serious hazards and illnesses and/or left to fend for themselves on the streets of large cities – often at a very early age. Whether or not particular forms of “work” can be called “child labor” depends on the child’s age, the type and hours of work performed, the conditions under which it is performed
Not all child work is considered as child labor, and one must be cognizant of the parameters in defining child labor. The operational definition of child labor employed in this paper incorporates both national and international definition regarding child labor, particularly the definition as stipulated in Republic Act No. 7658 (amending Republic Act No. 7610 of 1992), the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) Department Order No. 4 Series 1999, and Article 3 of International Labour Organization (ILO) Order No. 4 Series 1999. Incorporating the domains of both national and international definitions leads one to reduce the parameters to three important considerations: (1) hazards faced by the child; (2) age; and (3) parental supervision (Alonzo and Edillon 2002). Operationally, all child workers engaged in occupations characterized as the “worst form,” based on Article 3 of ILO Convention 182, are child laborers. The worst forms of child labor are all occupations that undermine the general welfare and the long-term development of a child. Age is a secondary consideration regarding child labor. Child work not categorized as the “worst form” will still be considered as child labor if the child is below 15 years old and not supervised by his or her parents at work. A child works outside parental supervision if he or she works for a private household other than his or her own; works for a private establishment; works for the government or a government corporation; and is self-employed. Thus, aside from the nature of the work and child’s age, the type of employment relations (i.e., with or without parental supervision) is also important in the consideration of child labor.
Determinants of child labor in the Philippines can be generally categorized as either economic or sociocultural. Although economic factors can be considered as circumscribing the social factors at play, it is important to note that these factors are interrelated and not entirely mutually exclusive. Another strand in the literature analyzes child labor determinants within the immediate environment of the child or the household level (micro), in the community and even regional level (meso) and in the national and international level (macro). The literature presents a skein of interrelated factors that contribute to the incidence of child labor. Expectedly, the apparent complexity and interrelations of the determinants of child labor have many-sided consequences on the child. This review of the literature does not intend to present a full discussion on the determinants of child labor. Some determinants, however, will be explored and discussed in light of the decision to abandon schooling altogether for work or the relationship between child labor and schooling. Children are forced or pressured to work, interfering with their education and exposing them to health risks, because of poverty. Case studies cited in del Rosario and Bonga (2000), and more recent studies by Lim (2001), Alonzo and Edillon (2002), Esguerra (2002), Sta. Maria and Chiongson (2002) and Villamil (2002) put poverty to the fore as the foremost determinant of child labor in the Philippines.
ERDA foundation under ABK3 leap project provides educational and livelihood supports for those students under child labor. It is a Non-Government Organization aiming to address the hot issue of child labor in the Philippines, specifically in sugarcane plantation. The researchers approached and sought the help of the said project.
San Piro national high School was chosen as the setting of the study based from the list of Child laborers provided by the ERDA foundation. This paper aimed to assess the effects of child labor to the scholcastic performance of those students engaged in this kin d of activity.
This paper looked into the reality about child labor and tried to understand its existence and its significant effects to the scholastic performance of the students that were engaged in the said activity. The results were used to draw a plan of action aiming to address the issues found on this study.
Statement of the Problem
This study will try to examine the effect of child labor in scholastic performance of students in San Piro National High School.
Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions:
What is the profile of the respondents according to their;
1.3time spent in working
To what extent does child labor affects student’s performance in terms of
2.4behavior in class
What is the relationship between the profile of the respondents and the effect of child labor in their school performance?
What intervention program can be used to address the effects of child labor in San Piro National High School
Scope, Delimitation and Limitation
This study aimed to look into the effects of child labor in students’ scholastic performance. This study gave emphasis specifically on the effects of child labor in student’s attendance, class standing, study habits and behavior in class. More so, it aimed to determine the relationship between the profile of the respondents and the effect of child labor in students’ school performance.
The study covered 20 students of San Piro National High School enrolled on school year 2015-2016. The respondents were chosen based on the list of child laborer provided by ERDA Foundation. These student respondents were aged 15 years old and below during that time.
For the delimitation of the study, the researchers excluded the 30 students that were also in the list. This was because they were 16 years old and above during the time that the study was conducted.
The research was only limited to the child labourers who worked for salary. Those children who worked at home or outside just to help their families were not included.
Significance of the study
This study has a great impulse:
To the Barangay San Piro, this study may help to evaluate the Impact of child labor in the Scholastic performance of the student. It may also give information on how student render money for their study and family. And on how to curtail child labor.
To the Children, this study may give tips that can develop a child to balance study and work. It can also provide information about the effect of child labor in school performance.
To the Parents, this study may produce wisdom in the impact of child labor in students’ performance at the school. It can also give tips to curtail child labor.
To the School and Teachers, this study may give an information why students was involved in child labor. And why they are not attending classes. This study may also help teachers and school head to understand the children who are undergoing child labor.
To the Future Researcher, this study may also be beneficial to the future researchers who will conduct studies related to the topic being discussed in this study. This may give them valuable information and supports the claim of their study.