BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals specification in Automotive Engineering Unit 4

BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals specification in Automotive Engineering Unit 4: Engineering Design
Student name Assessor name
KALPIT VAZE RESHMA RAJPUT
Date issued Completion date Submitted on
17/11/2016 Assignment title Be able to analyze and evaluate possible design solutions and prepare a final design report by using matrix analysis, brain storming, mind mapping, simulation, costs, value engineering.

Learner declaration
I certify that the work submitted for this assignment is my own and research sources are fully acknowledged.

Student signature: [email protected]:

You may wish to hand this assignment in directly to your tutor for feedback prior to the final summative date, For this assignment your formative date is: 11/01/2016
Learning outcomes Date achieved Evidence to meet outcome
2.1 Produce an analysis of possible design solutions Explain Matrix Analysis, Use of matrix analysis &Process of matrix analysis
2.2 Produce and evaluate conceptual designs Describe Cost and value. Explain Concept of value & value engineering. Write about Necessity of value engineering, applications, examples.

2.3 Select the optimum design solution What is Brain storming? Explain Its importance, Basic rules & steps of brain storming.
2.4 Carry out a compliance check What is Simulation? Explain Use of simulation.

2.5 Produce a final design report What is Mind Mapping? Give its Advantages.
Grade descriptors
Evidence to meet grading descriptor Evidence to meet grading descriptor
M3 Present and communicate appropriate findings The analysis for task 5 you will need to explain matrix analysis by giving example of any product selection from number of options(example car, laptop, television, mobile etc)
D1 Use critical reflection to evaluate own work and justify valid conclusions To explain your work you can select any one topic related with automobile design and demonstrate/discuss the brain storming session by making small group.
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: [email protected] TASK 1 (P2.1)
A) WHAT IS MATRIX ANALYSIS? WHERE IT IS USED?
WHAT IS MATRIX ANALYSI
It is a quantitative technique wont to rank the multi-dimensional choices of associate possibility set. It often utilized in engineering style for creating style selections however can even be wont to rank numerous configurations material choices, product choices or the other set of multidimensional entities.

A basic call matrix consists of building a collection of criteria choices that square measure scored and summed to achieve a complete score which might then be hierarchic. Significantly it not weighted to permit a fast choice method.

A weighted call matrix operates within the same approach because the basic call matrix however introduces the conception of weight the standards so as of importance. The resultant scores higher replicate the importance to the choice maker of the standards concerned. The additional necessary the standards the upper the weight it ought to lean. Every of the potential choices square measure scored and conjointly increased by the weight given to every of the standards so as to provide a result.

The advantage of the choice creating matrix is that subjective opinions regarding one different versus another are often created additional objective. Another advantage of this technique is that sensitivity studies are often performed. Associate example of this may well be to envision what proportion your opinion would need to modification so as for a lower hierarchic different to out rank a competitor different.

WHERE IT IS USED
portion on creator Nancy Tague provides Associate in Nursing illustration state of affairs of Associate in Nursing eatery that’s selecting that a part of the final issue of long consumer hindrance times to handle initial. They at first distinguished four “issue” alternatives: purchasers sitting tight for the host, the server, the nourishment and therefore the check. These ultimate set within the lines of their alternative grid.
The pertinent criteria concerning the problems, which might be place within the sections, are: consumer torment, straightforwardness to grasp, impact on completely different frameworks and speed to fathom.The foremost imperative part for the eatery is given a weighted positioning of five, whereas the others are given either a one or two. Next, each variable combine is given a three (high), two (medium) or one (low).
In illustration framework, the impact on consumer torment is medium, on the grounds that the eatery feel is pleasant; therefore it’s given a two. Since theywould
Be something however difficult to grasp in light-weight of the very fact that it includes each servers and room workers, it’s given a one. Moreover, the difficulty can take a minute to settle, since the room is confined and unyielding, therefore it’s likewise given a one.
These evaluations are then rose by the weighted rankings for those criteria. Each column of scores is then meant consider a final count. Clients toy for host” has the foremost astounding score at twenty shows that this issue has to be compelled to be cared-for initial.

B) EXPLAIN THE PROCESS IN MATRIX ANALYSIS.

28994102148840Imagine that your boss has place you answerable of usurping a replacement outsourced IT provider. You have already known many totally different suppliers, and you currently have to be compelled to decide that one to use. you’ll plan to keep company with the low price possibility. However you do not need to form your call on price alone -factors like contract length, underlying technology, and repair levels have to be compelled to be taken into thought. thus however are you able to ensure you create the most effective call, whereas taking all of those various factors into account? Grid Analysis may be a helpful technique to use for creating a call. It’s notably powerful wherever you’ve got variety of fine alternatives to decide on from, and plenty of various factors to require into consideration. This makes it an excellent technique to use in nearly any necessary call wherever there’s not a transparent and obvious most popular possibility.

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=THE+PROCESS+IN+MATRIX+ANALYSIS&biw=1366&bih=657&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjPn-mezejQAhXCrI8KHSEKCb4Q_AUIBigB#tbm=isch&q=THE+PROCESS+IN+MATRIX+ANALYSIS+in+mobile&imgrc=-QsBfa7VsyLkgM%3ABeing able to use Grid Analysis means you’ll take choices with confidence and rationally, at a time once people can be troubled to form a call.

How to Use the Tool Grid Analysis works by obtaining you to list your choices as rows on a table, and also the factors you would like think about as columns. You then score every option/factor combination, weight this score by the relative importance of the issue, ANd add these scores up to relinquish an overall score for every possibility. whereas this sounds advanced, this system is truly quite simple to use. Here’s a in small stages guide with AN example
Then go through these steps:
List all of your choices because the row labels on the table, and list the factors that you just have to be compelled to think about because the column headings. as an example, if you were shopping for a replacement laptop pc, factors to contemplate can be price, dimensions, and fixed disk size.

Next, work your method down the columns of your table, grading every possibility for every of the factors in your call. Score every possibility from zero (poor) to five (very good). Note that you just don’t need to have a unique score for every possibility – if none of them ar sensible for a specific think about your call, then all choices ought to score zero.

The next step is to figure out the relative importance of the factors in your call. Show these as numbers from, say, 0 to 5, wherever zero means the issue is completely unimportant within the judgment, and five means it’s vital. (It’s absolutely acceptable to own factors with identical importance
Now multiply every of your scores from step a pair of by the values for relative importance of the issue that you just calculated in step three. this may offer you weighted scores for every option/factor combination.

Finally, add up these weighted scores for every of your choices. the choice that scores the best wins!
Task: 2
WHAT IS COST? WHAT IS VALUE? WHAT IS VALUE ENGINEERING?
Conceptual and preliminary design is the most significant steps in the design process of a product and a system about 75% of the life cycle cost is committed in this stage consequently since the cost goals are set I the early and conceptual product definition phase reasonable cost estimates are critical to setting the DTC much of the initial cost of a system is a function of the design development and production cost consequently in DTC cost is elevated to the same level of concern as performanceand schedule and is evaluated continuously during the design and manufacturing processes. DTC manages and control cost is elevated to the same level of concern cost in all the development processes baseddesign to meet target cost factors of the project targets… cost is derived from the price that the cast
WHAT IS COST
Conceptual and preliminary styles are the foremost vital steps within the style method of a product or a system regarding seventy fifth of the life cycle prices is committed during this stage. Consequently, since the price goals are set I the first or abstract product definition section, affordable price estimates are vital to setting the DTC goals
Much of the initial price of a system may be perform of the planning development and production prices. Consequently, in DTC, price is elevated to constant level of concern as performance and schedule, and is evaluated incessantly throughout the planning and producing processes. DTC manages and controls price issues altogether the event processes, supported the subsequent parts.

Allocation of target price factors of the project. Target prices ar derived from the worth that the client is willing to pay, and from the market or business conditions. The project manager initiates allocation of target price values to subsystems, assemblies and elements reaches the amount of the one designer.

Design to satisfy target price and provision of knowledge and value estimation tools for designers. Achieving the allotted target price is that the responsibility of every styleer and every design team. They’re supported by a special team which incorporates producing engineers, buying employees, technologies et al. The team considers all the aspects that have an effect on the price, like producing method, testing, assembly, operation and maintenance. The styleers re-evaluate their design till the merchandise achieves it allotted target price.

Costs management victimization price estimation for every price issue and style to price Reviews Continuous analysis by the managers, of the planning for conformity to focus on price. The analysis method are often incorporated within the regular style and development reviews and in special reviews initiated by varied management levels.

Corrective actions pro re neat to cut back price. Just in case the target prices ar exceeded, at any purpose within the development method, immediate corrective measures are applied. These measures embody updates of intermediate target prices, style updates and conducting useful engineering reviews and workshops.

The Life-Cycle price (LCC) of a system is that the total price (to the customer) of acquisition and possession of the system over its full life cycle. It includes the price of development, acquisition operation, support and disposal.

Examples of R&D prices are selling analysis Systems engineering, design prototypes software experiments, tests documentation
Examples of Acquisition and producing prices are: Production instrumentality equipment line maintenance elements production assembly production management warranty production documentation examples of Operation and Maintenance prices are Distribution transportation operation maintenance spare elements training, manuals insurance.

WHAT IS VALUE
Concept of ValueSimply expressed, worth is that the relation of product perform to its value. it’s the value we have a tendency to pay money for a product, process, material or maybe service, needed to perform a particular perform in Associate in Nursing economical method.

Cost Reduction ; Value EngineeringCost in general terms is, ‘sum total of all expenses incurred’. The objective of VA/VE techniques is to attack cost and attempt to eliminate them wherever and whenever possible, to maximum possible extent.
Cost reduction looks upon VA/VE as a primary ; dynamic tool, VA/VE is undertaken to reduce costs. VA/VE is customer oriented and considers the basic requirements for the product or service. Further, it identifies costs that do not contribute quality or life to the product, and stimulates design as well as method and process changes.

From the mathematical formula, it is obvious that,
Value can be increased by one of the following ways –
Decreasing costs, while ensuring same level of performance:
Enhancing performance at same cost:
Decreasing cost and increasing performance:
Increasing performance and cost in different proportion:
All the above four ways are used by all industrial organizations for improving Value. Yet, relatively, due to pressure of Profits, Cost –reduction is more on agenda. The need therefore is faithful implementation of VA/VE.

Product worth derives from a products ability to satisfy precisely identified customer needs. Apart from this VE also argues for cost reduction while keeping worth constant.
Value Engineering is one such technique, which can be applied more effectively than the above mentioned traditional ones. It is the cost reduction tool, which challenges the standard cost itself. It starts where control ends cost.
Why is V.E. necessary?The function of product may change through the user’s experience or enhanced requirements.

New materials may demand reappraisal or substitution.

New production techniques / methods may force reappraisal.

Obsolescence of existing product due to new developments.

New ideas and approaches to problems may occur.
V.E. – When to apply?As shown in Figure 1, Value Engineering should be accomplished early in the life cycle of the item for two reasons:
Implementation costs such as: modification to production lines, retooling expenses, and changes to operational support elements.

More units are affected by the savings actions at initial stages than later.
What is value engineering?
Value engineering is a deliberate and composed way to deal with give the vital capacities in a venture at the most reduced cost. Esteem building advances the substitution of materials and techniques with less costly options, without relinquishing usefulness. It is centered on the elements of different parts and materials, as opposed to their physical characteristics. Likewise called esteem examination.

Give necessity, applications of value engineering with some examples
Bringing down O and M costs
Enhancing quality administration
Enhancing asset efficiency
Streamlining techniques
Minimizing printed material
Bringing down staff costs
Expanding procedural productivity
Enhancing development consumptions
Creating esteem states of mind in staff
Contending all the more successfully in commercial center
The system of Value Engineering is represented by an organized basic leadership procedure to evaluate the estimation of methodology or administrations. At whatever point unacceptable esteem is found, a Value Management Job plan can be taken after. This method includes the accompanying 8 stages:
Introduction
Data
Work
Inventiveness
Assessment
Suggestion
Execution
Review
TASK: 3 EXPLAIN BRAIN STORMING STEPS BY CONSIDERING SCENARIO-2
What is brain storming?
Process for generating artistic concepts and solutions through intensive and freewheeling give-and-take each participant is inspired to assume aloud and recommend as several concepts as potential in spite of on the face of it however freaky or flaky.

Analysis, discussion, or criticism of the airy concepts is allowed only if the group action session is over and analysis session begins.
Brainstorming works by that specialize in a retardant, then deliberately springing up with as several solutions as potential and by pushing the concepts as way as potential.
One ammonal one amongst one in every of} the explanations it’s therefore effective is that the barnstormers not solely return up with new concepts in a session, however additionally kindle from associations with different people’s concepts by developing and processing them
Steps in a brain storming:
Gather the participants from as wide a range of disciplines with as broad a range of experience as possible. This brings many more creative ideas to the session.

Write down a brief description of the problem – the leader should take control of the session, initially defining the problem to be solved with any criteria that must be met, and then keeping the session on course.

Use the description to get everyone’s mind clear of what the problem is and post it where it can be seen. This helps in keeping the group focused.

Encourage an enthusiastic, uncritical attitude among barnstormers encourage participation by all members of the team. Encourage them to have fun!
Write down all the solutions that come to mind (even ribald ones). Do NOT interpret the idea however you may rework the wording for clarity’s sake.

Do NOT evaluate ideas until the session moves to the evaluation phase. Once the brainstorming session has been completed, the results of the session can be analyzed and the best solutions can be explored either using further brainstorming or more conventional solutions.

Do NOT censor any solution, no matter how silly it sounds. The silly ones will often lead to creative ones – the idea is to open up as many possibilities as possible, and break down preconceptions about the limits of the problem.

The leader should keep the brainstorming on subject, and should try to steer it towards the development of some practical solutions. 
Once all the solutions have been written down, evaluate the list to determine the best action to correct the problem.

THERE ARE FOUR BASIC RULES IN BRAINSTORMING
No criticism: Criticism of ideas are withheld during the brainstorming session as the purpose is on generating varied and unusual ideals and extending or adding to these ideas. Criticism is reserved for the evaluation stage of the process. This allows the members to feel comfortable with the idea of generating unusual ideas.

Welcome unusual ideas: Unusual ideas are welcomed as it is normally easier to “tame down” than to “tame up” as new ways of thinking and looking at the world may provide better solutions.

Quantity Wanted: The greater the number of ideas generated, the greater the chance of producing a radical and effective solution.

Combine and improve ideas: Not only are a variety of ideals wanted, but also ways to combine ideas in order to make them better.

TASK: 4 WHAT IS SIMULATION? EXPLAIN ITS ADVANTAGES.

Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. The act of simulating something first requires that a model be developed; this model represents the key characteristics or behaviorsfunctions of the selected physical or abstract system or process. The model represents the system itself, whereas the simulation represents the operation of the system over time.

Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performance optimization, safety engineering, testing. Often, computer experiments are used to study simulation models. Simulation is also used with scientific modeling of natural systems or human systems to gain insight into their functioning. Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses of action. Simulation is also used when the real system cannot be engaged, because it may not be accessible, or it may be dangerous or unacceptable to engage, or it is being designed but not yet built, or it may simply not exist.
Key issues in simulation include acquisition of valid source information about the relevant selection of key characteristics and behaviors, the use of simplifying approximations and assumptions within the simulation, and fidelity and validity of the simulation outcomes.

PROCESS:
Decide independent and dependent variables.

Establish relationship between variables, to form a mathematical model.

This model is not the actual thing but I behaves like actual things , if independent variables are changed the dependent variables will change.

This model is operated using various simulation software’s.

Examples: Behavior of passenger during side crash. We need not use dummy and crash car for determining various behavioral aspects, it would be time consuming and costly. Here we use simulation technique.

TASK 5 (M3)
PRESENT ; COMMUNICATE APPROPRIATE FINDINGS OF PRODUCT PURCHASING (CAR, MOBILE, and LAPTOP ETC) FROM NUMBER OF OPTIONS BY USING MATRIX ANALYSIS .EXPLAIN IT BY GIVING CASE STUDY.

It is a quantitative technique wont to rank the multi-dimensional choices of associate possibility set. It often utilized in engineering style for creating style selections however can even be wont to rank numerous configurations material choices, product choices or the other set of multidimensional entities.

A basic call matrix consists of building a collection of criteria choices that square measure scored and summed to achieve a complete score which might then be hierarchic. Significantly it not weighted to permit a fast choice method.

A weighted call matrix operates within the same approach because the basic call matrix however introduces the conception of weight the standards so as of importance. The resultant scores higher replicate the importance to the choice maker of the standards concerned. The additional necessary the standards the upper the weight it ought to lean. Every of the potential choices square measure scored and conjointly increased by the weight given to every of the standards so as to provide a result.

The advantage of the choice creating matrix is that subjective opinions regarding one different versus another are often created additional objective. Another advantage of this technique is that sensitivity studies are often performed. Associate example of this may well be to envision what proportion your opinion would need to modification so as for a lower hierarchic different to out rank a competitor different.

WHERE IT IS USED
portion on creator Nancy Tague provides Associate in Nursing illustration state of affairs of Associate in Nursing eatery that’s selecting that a part of the final issue of long consumer hindrance times to handle initial. They at first distinguished four “issue” alternatives: purchasers sitting tight for the host, the server, the nourishment and therefore the check. These ultimate set within the lines of their alternative grid.
The pertinent criteria concerning the problems, which might be place within the sections, are: consumer torment, straightforwardness to grasp, impact on completely different frameworks and speed to fathom. The foremost imperative part for the eatery is given a weighted positioning of five, whereas the others are given either a one or two. Next, each variable combine is given a three (high), two (medium) or one (low).
In illustration framework, the impact on consumer torment is medium, on the grounds that the eatery feel is pleasant; therefore it’s given a two. Since they would
Be something however difficult to grasp in light-weight of the very fact that it includes each servers and room workers, it’s given a one. Moreover, the difficulty can take a minute to settle, since the room is confined and unyielding, therefore it’s likewise given a one.
These evaluations are then rose by the weighted rankings for those criteria. Each column of scores is then meant consider a final count. Clients toy for host” has the foremost astounding score at twenty shows that this issue has to be compelled to be cared-for initial.
A windsurfing enthusiast is about to replace his car. He needs one that not only carries a board and sails, but also one that will be good for business travel. He has always loved open-topped sports cars, but no car he can find is good for all three things
His options are:
An SUV/4×4, hard topped vehicle.

A comfortable “‘family car.”
A station wagon/estate car.

A convertible sports car.

Factors that he wants to consider are:
Cost.

Ability to carry a sail board safely.

Ability to store sails and equipment securely.

Comfort over long distances.

Fun!
Look, and build quality.

First he draws up the table shown in Figure 1, and scores each option by how well it satisfies each factor:
-76200410210This gives an interesting result: Despite its lack of fun, a station wagon is the best choice.
Grid Analysis helps you to decide between several options, where you need to take many different factors into account. To use the tool, lay out your options as rows on a table. Set up the columns to show the factors you need to consider. Score each choice for each factor using numbers from 0 (poor) to 5 (very good), and then allocate weights to show the importance of each of these factors. Multiply each score by the weight of the factor, to show its contribution to the overall selection. Finally add up the total scores for each option. The highest scoring option will be the best option.

Note: Grid Analysis is the simplest form of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), also known as Multiple Criteria Decision Aid or Multiple Criteria Decision Management (MCDM). Sophisticated MCDA can involve highly complex modeling of different potential scenarios, using advanced mathematics. A lot of business decision making, however, is based on approximate or subjective data. Where this is the case, Grid Analysis may be all that’s needed.

TASK 6- (D1)
Use critical reflection to evaluate own work and justify valid conclusions by giving an example of brain storming session.

WHAT IS BRAIN STORMING: –
Brainstorming is a group creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members.

Process for generating creative ideas and solutions through intensive and freewheeling group discussion.

Every participant is encouraged to think aloud and suggest as many ideas as possible, no matter seemingly how outlandish or bizarre.

Analysis discussion, or criticism of the aired ideas is allowed only when the brainstorming session is over and evaluation session begins.
Brainstorming works by focusing on a problem, and then deliberately coming up with as many solutions as possible and by pushing the ideas as far as possible.

One of the reasons it is so effective is that the brainstormers not only come up with new ideas in a session, but also spark off from associations with other people’s ideas by developing and refining them.

BRAINSTORMING STEPS:-
Gather the participants from as wide a range of disciplines with as broad a range of experience as possible. This brings many more creative ideas to the session.

Write down a brief description of the problem – the leader should take control of the session, initially defining the problem to be solved with any criteria that must be met, and then keeping the session on course.

Use the description to get everyone’s mind clear of what the problem is and post it where it can be seen. This helps in keeping the group focused.

Encourage an enthusiastic, uncritical attitude among brainstormers and encourage participation by all members of the team. Encourage them to have fun.

Do NOT evaluate ideas until the session moves to the evaluation phase. Once the brainstorming session has been completed, the results of the session can be analyzed and the best solutions can be explored either using further brainstorming or more conventional solutions.

EXAMPLE:-
SELECT ANY ONE DESIGN BASED ON AUTOMOBILE TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATE IT WITH BRAINSTORMING PROCESS:-
https://tex.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/car-design-coupe.jpg
Consideration points while designing a sedan car:-
Aesthetics points such as color, touch, feeling etc
Dimensions
Components
Various systems
Design and simulation
etc
Here are some thoughts and points on purpose and process for good brainstorming sessions:
Location matters
Have a specific purpose
Know what you want, and what to do with it
Know how to facilitate
Put the focus on the list
Comfort is key
Establish the ground rules
Postpone criticism
How to run a brainstorming meeting or discussions:-
The most important thing about a brainstorming session is what happens after it ends. What good is it to find 100 great ideas if they go absolutely nowhere?
While you can read hundreds of books on better creativity techniques, the most important thing is figuring out how brainstorming fits into the larger decision making process your team has. 
Even if you improve how you run a creativity session, and get more and better ideas, you’ll still have the harder, and much different, challenge of being effective in using those ideas to do something good in your organization. 
Brainstorming necessity and purpose:-
The simplest reason to hold a brainstorming meeting is to increase the volume of possible ideas.

By distributing a problem across 5 or 10 people, in theory, you should be able to obtain a wider array of different ideas much faster than any one person could on their own. 
Common examples are names for products, features for the next release, possible solutions to a difficult situation, goals for the team, or even locations for the next team morale event. 
Also in theory, the person who has to make final decisions is somehow benefited by the meeting, and can take all of the ideas and notes and easily convert them into some kind of action. Sadly, this is harder to do that most people expect.