ABTRACT

ABTRACT: This project aims to design alert system to the differently abled person regarding the upcoming obstacle which helps them to walk without any assistance. The main problems faced by these people during travelling where they are not able to predict the approaching vehicle or an object in their path. Inorder to improve their life style and make them feel protected without any assistance, this device provides alert to the differently abled person with the help of ultrasound sensors attached to the shoes and belt of the person. Further, the person has a glove containing braille that is placed in the hand, which provide the alert mechanism and indication to take alternate path based on the direction of the obstacle. This, in turn provides the differently abled person a safe and secure journey in the road without any blind stick or any personal guide.
Keywords: Deaf-blindness, braille, ultrasound.
INTRODUCTION
Deaf-blindness is a combination of vision and hearing loss which affects person’s ability to share their thoughts and communicate with surroundings. In reality, the term ‘deaf blindness’ covers a spectrum of combinations of varying degrees of vision and hearing loss. In order to provide a aid to those people, obstacle detecting device can be preferred which is dealt in this paper. This device is used to deduce the accidents caused to the differently abled person during their travel in the roads. This device involve in sensing the obstacle and transferring a indication wirelessly with the help of Bluetooth to the glove attached with braille. In India, it is estimated that the number of persons with various disability is over 90 million. There is no data available regarding the size of the deaf blind population in India. The National Deaf blind Children Count Registry, sponsored by the National Technical Assistance Centre, a program of Helen Keller National Centre, estimates that there are 10,000 deaf blind children in the U.S. aged birth to 21. Based on these statistics, there are approximately 40,000 to 70,000 deaf blind people in the United States.. Overall we can predict that 0.04% of general population have deaf blindness as disability is shown in pie chart.
BACKGROUND
Deaf blindness is also said to be sum of a visual and a hearing impairment. Jan Van Dijk, a leading researcher and educator in the field of deaf blindness, describes a person as being deaf blind when “he/she suffers a severe combined limitation of hearing and seeing, which results in stark communication, information and mobility problems” (Van Dijk, Janseen and Nelson 1993). Vision and hearing form the means by which humans come to visualize and know about the surrounding atmosphere. But people with deaf blindness suffer lot to lead their lives in this present world. So to avoid people isolate from the surrounding due to their disability, this device comforts them during their travel without any assistance.

DEAF-BLINDNESS
The term ‘deaf blindness’ tends to be thought of as a total inability to see and hear. In reality, the term covers a spectrum of combinations of varying degrees of vision and hearing loss. Deaf-blindness is not just a deaf person who cannot see or a blind person who cannot hear, but the two impairments together increases the effect of each. This condition leads differently abled person to remain isolated from the opportunities for physical, cognitive, social and language development.
CAUSES OF DEAF BLINDNESS
Deaf blindness is a condition which is caused due to various reasons. It can be either by birth or acquired later due to various factors or disorders. The most common factors causing deaf blindness are:
• Usher’s Syndrome.
• Congenital Rubella Syndrome.
• Sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis and AIDS.
• Drug overdosing.
• Medical errors and self inflicted injuries.
• CHARGE Association and Old Age.

Deaf blindness is not caused due to single condition. There are many reasons causing this disability.
Four primary causes of vision and hearing loss:
• Hereditary/Chromosomal Disorders.
• Prenatal viral/bacterial diseases, or harmful chemicals (Teratogens).
• Complications at birth.
• Postnatal injuries and/or illnesses.
Deaf blindness can be either congenital deaf blindness or acquired deaf blindness.
CONGENTIAL DEAF BLINDNESS:
Congenital deaf blindness is a condition which affects premature babies (birth before 37 weeks of pregnancy). This can occur due to following reasons:
• Rubella(German measles), Toxoplasmosis or cytomegalovirus (CMV).
• Genetic conditions such as CHARGE syndrome or Down’s syndrome.
• Foetel alcohol syndrome- health problems caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy.
ACQUIRED DEAF BLINDNESS
Acquired deaf blindness is a condition which occurs later after birth. A person with acquired deaf-blindness may be born with or without a hearing or sight problem and then later loses part or all of both senses. The reasons for this condition may be:
• Age related hearing loss.
• Usher syndrome – genetic condition.
• Age related eye problems.
• Meningitis, encephalitis, a stroke or severe head injury.
• Diabetic retinopathy.
CHALLENGES FACED BY DEAF-BLIND PEOPLE