1. What are the basic components of the neuron, and what are their functions?
The basic components of the neurons are the cell body, dendrites, and axons.
? The cell body has structures that can manufacture proteins and process nutrients. It provides energy the neurons need to function. It is also called the soma.
? The dendrites come from the Greek word meaning “tree”. They are short, branching fibers that extend from cell bodies of most neurons.
? The axons are an elongated tube that extends from the cell body in most neurons.
2. How is information communicated at the synapse?
Information communicated at the synapse by using the presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron. Presynaptic neurons are message- sending neurons. The postsynaptic neurons are the message-receiving neurons. Even though both neurons are messengers, they are separated by tiny, fluid-filled space.
3. How is information transmitted in the endocrine system, and what are its major structures?
Information is transmitted in the endocrine system by using hormones by run in the bloodstream. The major structures that hormones can do are they promote or inhibit the generation of nerve impulses. They can also have the same molecules that are used in both endocrine system and the nervous system.
4. What are functional and structural plasticity?
The functional plasticity is the brain’s ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas. This means that if a person is damaged from the brain, stroke, or accident victims relearn speaking, walking, reading etc. again. The structural plasticity is the brain’s ability to change its physical structure in response to learning, active practice, or environment influences. (Hockenbury, 63).
5. What is neurogenesis, and what is the evidence for its occurrence in the adult human brain?
Neurogenesis is the development of new neurons. The evidence that this occurs in adult human brains started with Peter Eriksson, Fred Gage, and their colleagues. After conducting an experiment on five cancer patients where they give them a drug that is used to determine if cancer cells are spreading. After several hours when the patients had died, they did determine that they each had hundreds of new neurons.
6. How do the functions of the right and left cerebral hemispheres differ?
The right hemisphere deals with the left side of the body while the left hemisphere deals with the right side of the body. The left side also controls language and in most people, it is the dominant hemisphere. The two hemispheres keep in touch through corpus callosum.